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Types of Computers - size, power

Super

computers Mainframe computers Minicomputers Micro computers

Workstations

PCs

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What is a Supercomputer
Supercomputers are the fastest expensive computers in the world. and most

They are used for performing trillions of complex calculations in a very short time.Their main use is for
Weather

forecasting Space exploration Advanced scientific research Military establishment weapons research. Pharmaceutical \ Drug testing

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Super Computer

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Mainframe Computers
Nowadays a Mainframe is a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs 1/21/13 4 concurrently.

Mainframe Computers

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Mini Computer
The minicomputer has become less important since the PC has gotten so powerful on its own. In fact, the ordinary new PC is much more powerful than minicomputers used to be. Originally this size was developed to handle specific tasks, like engineering and CAD calculations, that tended to tie up the main frame.

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A VAX Mini Computer

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Microcomputers
A

microcomputer is a computer that has a microprocessor chip as its CPU. They are often called personal computers because they are designed to be used by one person at a time. Personal computers are typically used at home, at school, or at a business. Popular uses for microcomputers include word processing, surfing the web, sending and receiving e-mail, spreadsheet calculations, database management, editing photographs, creating graphics, and playing music or games. computers come in two major varieties, desktop computers and laptop computers:
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Personal

Micro Computer

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Personal computer:
It can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. In price, personal computers range anywhere from a few hundred pounds to over five thousand pounds. All are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is for playing games and recently for surfing the Internet.

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Tower model The term refers to a computer in which the power supply, motherboard, and mass storage devices are stacked on top of each other in a cabinet. This is in contrast to desktop models, in which these components are housed in a more compact box. The main advantage of tower models is that there are fewer space constraints, which makes installation of additional storage devices easier.

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Desktop model A computer designed to fit comfortably on top of a desk, typically with the monitor sitting on top of the computer. Desktop model computers are broad and low, whereas tower model computers are narrow and tall. Because of their shape, desktop model computers are generally limited to three internal mass storage devices.

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Laptop computer
A

small, portable computer -- small enough that it can sit on your lap. Nowadays, laptop computers are more frequently called notebook computers

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Tablet Computers
A tablet personal computer or tablet PC is a tablet-sized computer that also has the key features of a full-size personal computer. A tablet PC is essentially a small laptop computer, equipped with a rotatable touch screen as an additional input device, and running a standard (or lightly adapted) PC operating system like Windows or Linux.

ipad
The iPad is a line of tablet computers designed primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content. Its size and weight falls between those of contemporary Smartphones and laptop computers. The iPad runs the same operating system as the iPod Touch and iphone - and can run its own applications as well as iPhone applications.
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PD A

Handhel d

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Workstations/Servers
A workstation is a powerful, high-end microcomputer. They contain one or more microprocessor CPUs. They may be used by a single-user for applications requiring more power than a typical PC (rendering complex graphics, or performing intensive scientific calculations).

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Note:
All of this talk of which computers are more powerful than others (i.e., mainframes are more powerful than minicomputers, which are more powerful than microcomputers) is relative for any particular moment in time. However, all classes of computers are becoming more powerful with time as technology improves. The microprocessor chip in a handheld calculator is more powerful than the ENIAC was, and your desktop computer has more processing power than the first supercomputers did. 1/21/13 17

Data and Information

All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. The information can also be put in computer storage for future use.

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Data Representation
The binary system (two states) uses to represent the data like decimal system which has 10 digits (0,1,2,.9). Binary system has only two digits (0 and 1). In the computer the 0 can represented by current off / low valtage and the 1 by the current on / high voltage. When we press the key for H on the computer keyboard, the character is automaticaly converted into the series of 0 and 1s.
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Storage Units
Bit

:- allows only 1 or 0. This is short form from Binary Digit. It is the basic unit of the data. Byte :- A group of 8 bits is called a byte, and a byte represents one character, digit, or other value. Kilobyte(KB) :- 210 = 1024 bytes Megabyte (MB) :- 210 = 1024 Kilobytes Gigabyte (GB) :- 210 = 1024 Megabytes Terabyte (TB) :- 210 = 1024 Gigabytes Petabyte (PB) :- 210 = 1024 Terabytes Exabyte (EB) :- 210 = 1024 Petabytes
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Binary coding scheme


EBCDIC

code

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code, IBM code for representing characters as numbers IBM invent this code at 1962 8 Bit coding scheme

ASCII

code

American Standard Code for Information Interchange used in PC Introduced in 1963 standard ASCII - 7 bits for each character Extended ASCII - 8 bits for each character

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