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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and his National Click to edit Master subtitle style Movements

Submitted to: Submitted By: Gurpartap 10th


1913 Satyagraha
Gandhi called his
method Satyagraha, meaning struggle for truth

He was prepared to

sacrifice his own wellbeing in order to change the hearts of his opponents. successfully organized Satyagraha movements in various

Mahatma Gandhi


1913 The Satyagrahi

Gandhi ceased to wear
European clothes simple dress was appropriate for defending the rights of ordinary Indians

He believed that


1919-1922 Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat Movement was organized by the Ali
brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali in protest against the injustices done to Turkey (which had fought against Britain) after the First World War. the Sultan of Turkey was also the Caliph (or Khalifa) and was the head of the Muslims throughout the world. Sevres (August 1920) which imposed partitioning of Ottoman Empire. 1/21/13

Turkey was important to the Indian Muslims as

The movement gained force after the Treaty of


Khilafat Movement Continued

The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the
British government to give better treatment to Turkey. Through this demand, Muslims were drawn into the national movement in large numbers. In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian Independence Movement. British government, received the support of Mahatma Gandhi, who related his Non Cooperation Movementwith it.

The Khilafat Movement, aimed against the

By the end of 1922, the Khilafat movement 1/21/13

collapsed when Turkey gained a more favorable

1920-22 Non-Cooperation the first series of non It was one of Movement violent

protests nationwide. educational institutions, civil services, army,

police, courts and legislative councils & foreign goods were boycotted people let go off their nominated seats in govt institutions. titles given by the government were surrendered. liquor shops picketed. foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. Nationalists expected to wear khadi (handspun & handwoven 1/21/13 cloth- Indian).

Causes of this movement were:

Colonial oppression,
exemplified by: Rowlatt Act Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Non-Cooperation Movement Continued

In Champaran and Kheda

poor farmers were forced to
grow cash crops like tobacco, indigo, and cotton instead of food crops. Inspite of famine, they had to pay taxes. Later the Governments signed agreements where the farmers were allowed to grow their own crops and without 1/21/13 paying taxes.

Non-Cooperation Movement Continued The movement failed as

Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass
produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. Boycott of British institutions posed a problem. so students and teachers began trickling back to

government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.

On 4th February 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, a

violent clash broke up between local police and protestors. Gandhi went on for a 3 days fast to appeal to the Indians to stop all resistance and the movement was called off. 1/21/13

1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement It was more active than the non cooperation

Some of its highlights were:

People refused cooperation with the British &
broke colonial law. Peasants refused to pay the revenue and taxes Village officials resigned. Forest laws were violated. People going into reserved forests to collect wood
and graze cattle.

Salt tax was abolished. A very important movement was that of Salt

1/21/13 Satyagraha where Gandhi undertook the Dandi

This resulted in the arrest of many important

congress leaders.

Civil Disobedience Movement Continued

In May 1930, Mahatma Gandhi himself was

arrested due to which all structures symbolized British rule were attacked.


An important feature of this movement was the

large-scale participation of women in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

The tax on salt, Illegal to

make it or sell it without a government license, was to be evaded by the Indians. 11March started his famous salt march with 78 other volunteers. miles from Gandhijis ashramin Sabarmati, Ahmedabad to the

1930 Salt March

Mahatma Gandhi on

The march was over 240

The volunteers walked for 24 days to reach Dandi.


1930 Making Salt

On 6 April they
reached Dandi and violated the salt law manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. picking up salt from the beach making salt which was illegal for Indians

Gandhi is shown

1942 Quit India Movement

next major milestone after the Salt Satyagraha in the history of Indian independence struggle. August 1942 with Gandhijis call for immediate independence. Bharat Chodo Andolan or the August Kranti. movement organized by 1/21/13 Gandhiji with the famous slogan Do or Die.

It was a civil disobedience movement launched in

It is also known as the

It was the last mass

The aspirations for self-government were again

thwarted by the proposals of Cripps Mission which failed to meet the Indian expectations. stirring speech told the people
"There is a mantra, short one, that I give you. You imprint it on your heart and let every breath of yours give an expression to it. The mantra is "do or die".

Quit India Movement Continued

On 8th August Gandhi in his

Almost the entire Indian National Congress

leadership, and not just at the national level, was imprisoned early morning next day i.e August 9without trial within hours after Gandhis speech 1/21/13 at least 60,000 people.

The entire congress leadership was cut off from

the rest of the world for over 3 yrs.

Quit India Movement & The Final Hours of Independence

Gandhi went on a fast for 21 days demanding

the release of the leaders despite his failing health. The British had to secure the release of the leaders of Indian National Army by Subhash Bose which fought against the allied forces in the Burma and seiged kohima. But the INA forces were captured and during their trial mass revolts broke out 1/21/13 specially among the Indian navy which defied

Other significant development was the founding

Quit India Movement & The Final Hours of Independence All this agitations
culminated into the unwilling British masters to step down from power under Lord Mountbatten in August 1947 when Independence was announced and partition of India followed with the birth of two nations- that of India and Pakistan.



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