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Performance Management

April 4, 2008

Definition

Performance management is one of the management

functional areas of Telecommunication Management


Network (TMN). Performance management involves monitoring, analyzing, and controlling the network performance. Performance management is defined as follows: Collecting performance data of the network, equipment, functions, services, or other objects periodically or in event-triggering mode; Collecting performance-related flow data; Analyzing and handling collected data; Saving and managing collected data.

Contents

Performance Data Real Time Performance Monitoring RAN Key Performance Index (KPI) Performance Analysis and Optimization

Performance Data Structure

Level 1: performance statistics Level 2: history performance data Level 3: system monitoring data

Performance Data Levels


Item RAN Key Performance Indicators Sub-Item Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Common performance indicator Main Use KPI monitoring, KPI reporting, and northbound interface Performance data reporting, northbound interface, general network performance, traffic, and equipment usage evaluation CDR analysis, QoS evaluation, common problem location, user complaint handling Recording of network or cell status and analysis of CHRs Further analysis of the problems that cannot be located according to CHRs, by analyzing specified IMSIs or random IMSIs that are admitted on the carriers with high call drop rates Real-time recording of system status, such as load information and interference information, to help locate deep-seated problems

History performance data

Call history record (CHR)

RAN Tracing and Monitoring Data

System History Record (SHR) Real-Time User Monitor (RUM)

Real-Time System Monitor (RSM)

Contents

Performance Data Real Time Performance Monitoring RAN Key Performance Index (KPI) Performance Analysis and Optimization

Real Time Performance Monitoring


KPI Name RRC Connection Setup Success Rate (service)
AMR RAB Assignment Success Rate VP RAB Assignment Success Rate PS RAB Assignment Success Rate CS AMR Call Drop Rate VP Call Drop Rate

PS Service Drop Rate


Soft Handover Success Rate CS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM) PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM) UL CE Usage Rate DL CE Usage Rate UL Iub Allocated Bandwidth Usage Rate DL Iub Allocated Bandwidth Usage Rate

Description Number of RRC connection setup successes (service) / Number of RRC connection setup attempts (service) Number of AMR RAB assignment successes / Number of AMR RAB assignment attempts Number of VP RAB assignment successes / Number of VP RAB assignment attempts Number of PS RAB assignment successes / Number of PS RAB assignment attempts Number of AMR call drops / Number of AMR RAB assignment successes Number of VP call drops / Number of VP RAB assignment successes Number of PS call drops / Number of AMR PS setup successes Number of soft handover successes / Number of soft handover attempts Number of successful CS service handovers from UMTS / Number of attempted CS service handovers from UMTS
Number of successful PS service handovers from UMTS / Number of attempted PS service handovers from UMTS Occupied NodeB UL CE resources / Total NodeB UL CE resources Occupied NodeB DL CE resources / Total NodeB DL CE resources Allocated bandwidth of UL Iub / Physical bandwidth of UL Iub Allocated bandwidth of DL Iub / Physical bandwidth of DL Iub Occupied DL code resources / Total cell code resources -

DL Code Usage Rate PS UL Throughput PS DL Throughput

Thresholds
KPI Name RRC Connection Setup Success Rate (service) AMR RAB Assignment Success Rate VP RAB Assignment Success Rate PS RAB Assignment Success Rate CS AMR Call Drop Rate VP Call Drop Rate PS Service Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate CS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM) PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate (from UTRAN to GSM) UL CE Usage Rate DL CE Usage Rate UL Iub Allocated Bandwidth Usage Rate DL Iub Allocated Bandwidth Usage Rate DL Code Usage Rate PS UL Throughput PS DL Throughput
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Threshold >98% >98% >98% >98% <2% <3% <5% >98% >95% >89%

Real Time Performance Monitoring

Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Real Time Performance Monitoring

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Contents

Performance Data Real Time Performance Monitoring RAN Key Performance Index (KPI) Performance Analysis and Optimization

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Definition

Key performance indicators (KPIs) are a set of selected indicators used for measuring the current network performance and trends. KPIs highlight the key factors of network monitoring and warn in time of potential problems. KPIs are also used to prioritise the corrective actions.

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Radio Resource Control (RRC)


Radio resource control (RRC) state is also called packet data transfer state. The description of the packet data transfer states given here is based on the 3GPP RRC protocol specification. The Figure RRC states and state transitions shows the supported RRC states and state transitions. The RRC handles the control plane signalling of layer 3 between the Ues and RAN. RRC allows a dialogue between the RAN and the UE and also between the core network and the UE. An RRC connection is a logical connection between the UE and the RAN used by two peer entities to support the upper layer exchange of information flows. There can only be one RRC connection per UE. Several upper layer entities use the same RRC connection.

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RRC States
-

Reduce actionDTXand save power


RRC

connection
CELL_PCH

URA_PCH

CELL_DCH

CELL_FACH

Dedicated Channel - Radio bearers Transmission Services


IDLE

upper layer Signaling trigger (CN) - Monitor paging channel - cell re-selection

DEAD

Scanning networks (PLMN) - Camp on cell

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RRC Key Functions


Establishing, re-establishing, maintaining and releasing the RRC connection (i.e. the first signaling connection for the UE) between the UTRAN and the UE Establishing, re-configuring and releasing the radio access bearers in the user plane of layer 2 and layer 1 Evaluation, decision-making and execution relating to RRC connection mobility (e.g. handover, cell/paging area update procedures and so on) during an established RRC connection Controlling the measurements performed by the UE (e.g. measurement item, measurement timing, the way of reporting, and so on)

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General Formula

The formula of RRC Setup Success Rate:

RRC Setup Success Rate = (RRC Connection Setup Success / RRC Connection Request) 100%

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Actual Formula

The formula of RRC Setup Success Rate:


RRC Setup Success Rate = {([RRC.SuccConnEstab.OgConvCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.OrgStrCall]+[RRC.SuccCo nnEstab.OrgItrCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.OrgBkgCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.OrgSub Call]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.TmConvCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.TmStrCall]+[RRC.Suc cConnEstab.TmItrCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.TmBkgCall]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.Emg Call]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.OgHhPrSig]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.OgLwPrSig]+[RRC.Suc cConnEstab.CallReEst]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.TmHhPrSig]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.TmL wPrSig]+[RRC.SuccConnEstab.Unkown])/([RRC.AttConnEstab.OrgConvCall]+[RRC.Att ConnEstab.OrgStrCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.OrgInterCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.OrgBkg Call]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.OgSubCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.TmConvCall]+[RRC.AttConn Estab.TmStrCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.TmInterCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.TmBkgCall]+[R RC.AttConnEstab.EmgCall]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.OgHhPrSig]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.OgL

wPrSig]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.CallReEst]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.TmHhPrSig]+[RRC.AttCo
nnEstab.TmLwPrSig]+[RRC.AttConnEstab.Unknown])}*100%

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Call Flow

Setting RRC Connection


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Call Flow

RRC Connection Setup Failure and Retry


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Call Flow

RRC Connection Release


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RRC Connection Setup Failure Causes


KPI VS.RRC.Rej.RL.Fail VS.RRC.Rej.AAL2.Fail VS.RRC.Rej.Power.Cong VS.RRC.Rej.UL.CE.Cong Failure Cause RL setup failure AAL2 setup failure Congestion due to power resources Congestion due to UL CE resources

VS.RRC.Rej.DL.CE.Cong
VS.RRC.Rej.Code.Cong VS.RRC.Rej.Other.Cong RRC.FailConnEstab.NoReply

Congestion due to DL CE resources


Congestion due to code resources Congestion due to other causes No response is received from the UE.

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Radio Access Bearer (RAB)


When a connection is requested, bearers are allocated by a bearer translation function. This function correlates the requested attributes with the list of supported bearers and makes an appropriate choice. Provide information between a UE and the core network on the quality requirements that must be satisfied for a service. This Quality of Service (QoS) is expressed by parameters such as data rate, block size, and error rate. The QoS required differs depending on the service.

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Supported Bearers
QoS Class Bit Rate (bps) 8000 12200 16000 23850 28800 32000 32000 56000 64000 8000 16000 32000 57600 64000 128000 144000 256000 384000

CONVERSATIONAL

STREAMING

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Supported Bearers
QoS Class Bit Rate (bps) 0 8000 16000 32000 64000 128000 144000 256000 384000 608000 768000 1024000 1450000 1536000 1800000 2048000 2890000 3648000 5760000 7200000 10100000 14400000 QoS Class Bit Rate (bps) 0 8000 16000 32000 64000 128000 144000 256000 384000 608000 768000 1024000 1450000 1536000 1800000 2048000 2890000 3648000 5760000 7200000 10100000 14400000

BACKGROUND

INTERACTIVE

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General Formula

The formula of RAB Establishment Success Rate:

RAB Setup Success Rate = RAB Assignment Success / RAB Assignment Request 100%

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Actual Formula

The formula of RAB Establishment Success Rate:

RAB Setup Success Rate = ([VS.RAB.SuccEstab.AMR]/[VS.RAB.At tEstab.AMR])*100%

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Call Flow

RAB Establishment Procedure


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RAB Establishment Failure Causes


KPI Failure Cause

VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.TNL
VS.RAB.FailEstCS.Relo VS.RAB.FailEstCs.Power.Cong VS.RAB.FailEstCs.ULCE.Cong VS.RAB.FailEstCs.DLCE.Cong VS.RAB.FailEstCs.Code.Cong VS.RAB.FailEstCs.IUB.Band

Transport network problem


Relocation Congestion due to power resources Congestion due to UL CE resources Congestion due to DL CE resources Congestion due to code resources Congestion due to transmission resources Other causes Configuration not supported

VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.Other.Cell VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.Unsp.Other

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR)


In reference to 3GPP TS 25.931, a call setup will be described by the concatenation of the phases 1. RRC Connection Establishment 2. RAB Establishment

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General Formula

The formula of Call Setup Success Rate :

Call Setup Success Rate = RRCSetupSuccRate RABSetupSuccRate 100%

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Call Drop Rate (CDR)

A call is released by the CN with either RANAP:RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or RANAP: IU RELEASE COMMAND (defined in 3GPP specifications about UTRAN Iu interface RANAP signalling). The release can be a normal release or a drop. Call Drop Rate of Signaling Plane is calculated by counting RNC-originated Iu connection release. Can be divided into two parts: CS&PS

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General Formula

The formula of Call Drop Rate of CS: Call Drop Rate of CS Plane = RNC-originated CS Domain Iu Connection Release / RNC-originated CS Domain Iu Connection Setup Success 100%

The formula of Call Drop Rate of PS: Call Drop Rate of PS Plane = RNC-originated PS Domain Iu Connection Release / RNC-originated PS Domain Iu Connection Setup Success 100%

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Actual Formula

The formula of Call Drop Rate of CS: Call Drop Rate of CS Plane = {[VS.RAB.Loss.CS.AMR]/([VS.RAB.Loss.CS.AMR]+[VS.RA B.Loss.CS.Norm.AMR]) }*100%

The formula of Call Drop Rate of PS:


Call Drop Rate of PS Plane = {([VS.RAB.Loss.PS.RF]+[VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Abnorm])/([VS.

RAB.Loss.PS.RF]+[VS.RAB.Loss.PS.Abnorm]+[VS.RAB.L
oss.PS.Norm]) }* 100%

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Call Flow

SRNC RANAP RANAP RANAP Iu Release Request Iu Release Command Iu Release Complete

CN RANAP RANAP RANAP

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Call Drop Causes


KPI VS.RAB.RelReqCS.OM Failure Cause OM interference

VS.RAB.RelReqCS.RABPreempt
VS.RAB.RelReqCS.UTRANgen VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.RLCRst

RAB preemption
UTRAN-generated cause RLC reset

VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.ULSync
VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.UuNoReply VS.RAB.Loss.CS.RF.Oth VS.RAB.Loss.CS.Aal2Loss VS.Call.Drop.CS.Other

UL synchronization failure
No response from Uu Other RF causes AAL2 link abnormal Other causes

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Soft Handover

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Soft Handover Advantages

seamless handover without a disconnection of the RAB

fast closed-loop power control optimisation (the UE is always linked

with the strongest cell)

a sufficient reception level for maintaining communications by

combining reception signals (macrodiversity) from multiple cells when the UE moves to cell boundary areas and cannot obtain a sufficient reception from a single cell

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Soft Handover

Soft

handover means that the UE is connected to more than one

WCDMA BTS at the same time (this is why it is also called a "macro diversity handover"). When in connected mode, the UE continuously

measures serving and neighbouring WCDMA BTSs (cells indicated by


the RNC) on the current carrier frequency. The UE compares the measurement results with handover thresholds, which have been provided by the Radio Network Controller (RNC). When a measurement yields a value that exceeds a given threshold, the UE sends a measurement report to the RNC.

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General Formula

The formula of Soft (Softer) Handover

Success Rate:
Soft (Softer) Handover Success Rate = Soft (Softer) Handover Success / Soft (Softer) Handover Request 100%

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Actual Formula

The formula of Soft (Softer) Handover

Success Rate:
Soft (Softer) Handover Success Rate = ([VS.SHO.AMR.SuccOut]/[VS.SHO.AMR.AttOut]) * 100%

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Call Flow (Branch Addition)

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Call Flow (Branch Deletion)

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Call Flow (Branch Replacement)

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SHO Failure Causes

KPI
SHO.FailRLAddUESide.Isr SHO.FailRLAddUESide.InvCfg SHO.FailRLAddUESide.NoReply

Failure Cause
Synchronous reconfiguration not supported Configuration illegal No response from UE

SHO.FailRLAddUESide.CfgUnsup Configuration not supported

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Inter RAT Hard Handover Success Rate


Handover mechanisms from UMTS to GSM are necessary if a UE leaves a UMTS coverage area while it has an active connection. Handover from UMTS to GSM is triggered when the quality of the UMTS link is below a certain threshold and the quality of the GSM link is above a certain threshold.

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Compressed Mode
Compressed mode is a radio path feature that enables the user equipment (UE) to maintain the current connection on a certain frequency while performing measurements on another frequency. This allows the UE to monitor neighbouring cells on another frequency (FDD) or radio access technology (RAT), typically GSM. Compressed mode means that transmission and reception are halted for a short time - a few milliseconds - in order to perform a measurement on another frequency or RAT. The required reception/transmission gap is produced without any loss of DCH user data by compressing the data transmission in the time domain.

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Compressed Mode

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Call Flow

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General Formula

The formula of InterRAT Handover to GSM

Success Rate:

InterRAT Handover to GSM Success Rate = inter-RAT handover from UTRAN to GSM success / inter-RAT handover from UTRAN to

GSM attempts 100%

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Actual Formula

The formula of InterRAT Handover to GSM

Success Rate:

InterRAT Handover to GSM Success Rate = ([IRATHO.SuccOutCS]/[IRATHO.AttOutCS])*100%

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Call Flow

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Inter RAT Handover Causes

KPI

Failure Cause

IRATHO.FailOutCS.CfgUnsupp Configuration not supported

IRATHO.FailOutCS.PhyChFail

Physical channel failure

VS.IRATHO.FailOutCS.Other

Other causes

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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Signaling Congestion Rate


The formula of Signaling Congestion Rate:
Signaling Congestion Rate = RRC Connection Reject (Cause: congestion) / RRC Connection Request 100%

UE

NodeB

RNC

RRC RRC

RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Reject (Cause : Congestion)

RRC RRC

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Traffic Congestion Rate


Traffic Congestion Rate is calculated by counting

the RAB Assignment Setup Failure (cause:


congestion).

Can be divided into two parts: CS&PS

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Traffic Congestion Rate

The formula of CS Traffic Congestion Rate:


CS Traffic Congestion Rate = CS Domain RAB Assignment Setup
Failure (Congestion) / CS Domain RAB Assignment Setup Request 100%

The formula of PS Traffic Congestion Rate:


PS Traffic Congestion Rate = PS Domain RAB Assignment Setup Failure (Congestion) / PS Domain RAB Assignment Setup Request 100%

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Traffic Congestion Rate

SRNC

CN

RANAP

RAB Assignment Request

RANAP

RANAP

RAB Assignment Response (Failure cause: Congestion)

RANAP

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Contents
RRC Connection Success Rate RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Setup Success Rate Call Drop Rate Soft Handover Success Rate Inter-RAT Hard Handover Success Rate Congestion Rate

Traffic Load

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CS Traffic

One Erlang is defined as the one 12.2K CS AMR call lasting


for one hour. The traffic of other different services are derived by converting to equivalent 12.2K CS AMR call.

CS Traffic for two types of QoS:


CS Conversational Traffic (i.e. voice and video) CS Streaming Traffic (e.g. streaming video or audio)

CS Traffic for two types of Service:


CS AMR Traffic (Voice) CS CONV 64k Traffic (Video Phone)

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PS Traffic

The traffic of different services are derived by converting to equivalent 12.2K CS AMR call.

PS Traffic for four types of QoS:


PS Conversational Traffic PS Streaming Traffic PS Interactive Background Traffic

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PS Throughput
PS Throughput for four types of QoS (in Bytes)

PS UL Conversational services Throughput

PS UL Streaming services Throughput


PS UL Interactive services Throughput PS UL Background services Throughput

PS DL Conversational services Throughput


PS DL Streaming services Throughput PS DL Interactive services Throughput PS DL Background services Throughput

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Things to Consider

Channel Elements Transmit power of cell RTWP

Code Utilization
Cell Throughput

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Contents

Performance Data Real Time Performance Monitoring RAN Key Performance Index (KPI) Performance Analysis and Optimization

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Alarm Analysis
Power system alarm - A power system alarm is raised by the power supply. Environment system alarm - An environment system alarm is an alarm about the environment of the equipment room, such as temperature, humidity, or gate. Signaling system alarm - A signaling system alarm is an alarm about the signaling system, such as No. 7 signaling or No. 1 signaling. Trunk system alarm - A trunk system alarm is an alarm about the trunk system, such as E1, STM-1 optical or electrical relay. Hardware system alarm - A hardware system alarm is an alarm about a board device, such as clock or CPU. Software alarm - A software system alarm is an alarm about software. Running system alarm - An running system alarm is an alarm about the M2000 running. Communication system alarm - A communication system alarm is an alarm about the communication system. QoS alarm - A QoS alarm is an alarm about QoS. Processing error alarm - Processing error alarms are alarms about other exceptions that are not described here.

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Level 1 Analysis Process

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Network KPI Analysis


Step

1 of performance analysis and quality early warning is to make an overall analysis of

network KPIs. The KPIs include, but are not limited to traffic, call completion rate, handover success rate, and call drop rate. For those which contain specific services, such as HSDPA and CMB, or specific algorithms, we also need to observe the integral indexes of corresponding KPIs.
Analyze The

the KPI of daily report or weekly report as required.

judgment of whether the KPI is abnormal must be based on the comparison with early

history. We may observe the extent of relative change instead of the absolute value of the
KPI.
When

there is no apparent change in the KPI, there are two processing modes: End the

current performance analysis and analyze TOPN cell. When there are a large number of network cells, the performance deterioration of very few base stations may not apparently affect the overall network KPI. These abnormal cells can be found out by contrasting TOPN analysis.
When

the relative value of the KPI is not apparently changed but its absolute value always

cannot reach standards and no analysis conclusion has been drawn, we need to analyze specific causes according to traffic statistics data and conduct quality early warning.
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RNC Equipment Problem/Interface/Parameter etc.


RNC

equipment problem and IUR interface transmission problem

may affect the whole-network KPI.


IU

interface transmission problem and core network problem will

affect the whole-network KPI directly.


If

the performance indexes of network cells are universally

deteriorated, basic causes are related to the RNC board reset and restricted IU interface transmission. Transmission bandwidth restricted can be checked by observing transmission-related PIs from traffic statistics.
Another

case of affecting the overall KPI of RNC: RNC-level

parameter change. If the whole-network KPI becomes apparently abnormal, we need to make sure whether any RNC-level parameter

change has been made recently and carefully check the impact of this
parameter on the network.
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KPI Analysis of TOPN Cells


The

number of TOPN cells can be increased according to the network scale. If

there are too few TOPN cells, some cells with abnormal performance may be ignored.
The

WCDMA Performance Monitoring Report output by the Nastar tool lists

the TOPN with normal KPIs. According to this report, we may pick out important
cells from TOPN cells and make an in-depth analysis.
A

comparison of the indexes of TOPN cells with those of history TOPN cells

helps judge whether cell performance indexes are normal. It is recommended to use the above-mentioned trend analysis figure for comparison. Make sure whether TOPN cell Id changes and what the amplitude of change in TOPN cell KPI is. This is simple but visual.
TOPN

cell problems must be analyzed together with cell traffic. For example, a

pure observation of the call drop rate of a cell is meaningless. If a cell has one call drop, but there is only one call attempt, the call drop rate is 100%.

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Cell Equipment Analysis


Cell

equipment analysis means analyzing the equipment of

TOPN cells of last step. Likewise, subsequent load problem analysis and interference problem analysis are oriented to TOPN cells.
The

equipment that affects cell performance KPI includes the

antenna feeder equipment and the uplink/downlink processing board of a base station. Generally, related equipment alarms can be observed either on the NodeB side or on the RNC side.
The

transmission restricted and intermittent transmission

failure of a base station will affect related cell indexes.

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Cell Load Analysis


The

indexes directly related to cell load include average uplink/downlink CE of a cell (VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.CELL/2,

occupied

VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.CELL) and the maximum uplink/downlink occupied CE

(VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.CELL.Max/2, VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.CELL.Max). When


the maximum uplink/downlink occupied CE approaches 128 or the average occupied CE is around 60, expansion should be considered.
Causes

for cell load problems include: change of traffic model; the main

coverage service of this cell is designed to be VP64, but actually there are a
large number of 384k services. During holidays, relatively concentrated population leads to the increase in traffic.
High

load may cause CE congestion, power congestion, code congestion, and

transmission congestion. We should make an analysis by observing


corresponding PI.
In

load problem analysis, when much power congestion occurs, actual load is

not necessarily very high. In this case, we need to analyze admission strategy and judge whether admission parameters are properly set.
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Cell Interference Analysis

Causes

of interference: UE self-correlation interference. If there are

many UEs in a conversation within a cell, interference will increase.


Interference is also caused by external interference source and by pilot pollution.
Whether

there is any uplink interference within a cell can be judged

by observing the RTWP indexes in traffic statistics, that is, the average
RTWP of a cell and the maximum RTWP of a cell. If the average RTWP of a cell is as high as -95 dBm or higher, it is possible that there is uplink interference. Observe the maximum RTWP. If RTWP peak, such as -70 dBm, is often seen, the cause may be the power of access process or handover process.

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Cell Coverage Analysis

Coverage

problems include poor coverage, excessive coverage, pilot

pollution, and missing configuration of adjacent cells.


Poor

coverage leads to poor performance of an air interface. In traffic

statistics, a large number of PIs, such as RF.RLCRst, RF.ULSync and UuNoReply, are related to poor coverage.

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Level 2 Analysis Process

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Level 3 Analysis Process

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Call Data Tracing

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