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# CGE 535 Chapter 3 Assignment 1

Prepared by Amir Syakib Bin Haron Mohd Hanafiah Bin Yaacob 2012268534

A materials product usually comprised of silicon which conducts electricity more than an insulator but less than a pure conductor, such as copper and aluminum. Semiconductors are usually very small and complex devices, and can be found in thousands of products such as computers, cell phones, appliances, and medical equipment. Semiconductors differ from metals in their characteristic property of decreasing electrical resistivity with increasing temperature. There are two main types of semiconductor materials which are intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Intrinsic is a semiconducting properties of the material occur naturally while extrinsic is a semiconducting properties of the material that are manufactured by human.

A diode allows electricity to flow in one direction and block the flow in opposite direction. They may regard as one way valves and are used in various circuits, usually as a form of protection. They are different type of diode but the functions are same. The most common type of diode is a silicon diode. It is enclosed in a glass cylinder with the dark band marking the cathode terminal. This line points towards the positive of a circuit. The opposite terminal is called the anode. If the current becomes too high the diode may crack or melt

A volt-ampere (VA) is the unit used for the apparent power in an electrical circuit, equal to the product of root-meansquare (RMS) voltage and RMS current. In direct current (DC) circuits, this product is equal to the real power active power in watts. Volt-amperes are useful only in the context of alternating current (AC) circuits sinusoidal voltages and currents of the same frequency.

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Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Where a single diode is used as a rectifier, you get halfwave rectification when the sinus wave is going positive. The diode will conduct but in the negative half of the cycle, it will block the current flow. So the result wave form will be only the positive half that will be available for half the period of the cycle. The other half will be 0 Volt.

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Full Wave Rectifier Circuit. Full wave rectification uses two diodes so the positive and negative halves of the alternate current are separated. The bottom half of the wave is then inverted to make it positive. The positive waves and the inverted negative waves are combined to result in a train of positive pulses, where all of the potential current is preserved.

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Definition

- A transistor in which the voltage on one terminal (the gate) creates a field that allows or disallows conduction between the other two terminals (the source and drain). - Conducting semi conductor channel between two ohmic contacts - source and drain. The gate terminal controls the channel current. The gate structure act as two terminal devices. The gate is very highimpendance terminal

Operating principles

Comparison with bipolar junction transistor - FET uses voltage to control an electrostatic field within the transistor, in contrast to the bipolar transistor, which uses bias current between base and emitter to control conductivity. Application - Used in memory devices, due to its size which is smaller.