You are on page 1of 51

3G Indoor/Outdoor Coverage Solution

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor Cases of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor &outdoor

Indoor data service is the main source of advancing income


Statistics of Europe operator incomebillionUS$)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2008

use scene classification of movable termination

Source: NTT DoCoMo statistics

Total ARPU

Voice ARPU


Source: Yankee Group


NTT DoCoMo has

The show of DoCoMo statistics, the use value of
20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

begun to increase build indoor coverage from 2004, Close 2006, indoor site occupy 23% with total ,and that continuous to expand

3G Indoor service is 70%, and that most is new feature 3G service.

The data service can advance ARPU and make

up voice ARPU decrease

Data service is main power of advancing ARPU

that Operator develop differentiation. 3

Indoor coverage is very important for network performance

solitary island effectTOP

PingPang effectMiddile

Network busy(Shopping MallExhibition Center) Fade zone,Poor coverage area(elevator, basement)

Coverage sideIt make much pass loss of radio wave to form poor coverage

even fade zone because of screen and absorb with building.

Capacity sideBuilding as shopping mall, exhibition center


radio channel congestion because of high mobile phone useful density that part of network capacity can not satisfied with useful

Quality side: The building high level space is easy to existing interfere,

signal of service cell is not stable and appear PingPang effect ,voice quality could not be assure and appear call drop . 4

The perfect indoor coverage is the key of 3G network structure.

Voice is main service at 2G period, it

2G period

use wide coverage plot to solve the problem about coverage and capacity

There is much pass loss with the high frequency of 3G.

The much penetrate loss make the Marco outdoor site

3G period

not provide full radio coverage at indoor.

Much more services happen with indoor, involve voice

and data service. The perfect indoor coverage is useful to raise network capacity

Perfect indoor coverage is the key of network built from thinking about coverage and capacity

The property analysis of 3G indoor/outdoor same coverage

discrete distribution Signal interfere and leak Same indoor distributed system Traffic share smooth interim

Same network with indoor and outdoor, share with the coverage and capacity of all network, same 2G

indoor system, built 3G indoor system quickly

factor of 3G indoor coverage

Construction Condition

Indoor signal quality

Wiring Condition Electric Condition Exterior Condition

Environment Interfere User Feel power consumptive

Costs to built and maintain

Costs and quantity of Power saving capability

Risk of market expansion


Network mature changing Smooth market expansion capability

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor Cases of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor &outdoor

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

2/3G distributing system alternation Indoor & outdoor Networking strategies

3G Multiple cells classification

Analysis of outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

When the site is built at the top of the building,the outdoor signal distribute character as follow

The high level of signal coverage is stronger than lower level The signal is much stronger close the window, it is to weaken quickly with penetrate deeply The basement is better to separated, it belongs to fade zone with signal. It should receive the stronger outdoor signal when the hall is glass top floor

The building of China Unicom in Shenzhenthe signal distribute at 20 floor when the site is at top floor The area is 88.48% as the RSCP more than -85dBm. 10

Analysis of outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

When the site do not built at top floor that the building will be covered, it cover with outdoor
penetrates indoors from surrounding site signaling. because of the antenna height is controlled by 30 meters, at the condition the building of being covered (as 30F building, no site at top floor) signal distribute as follow

It is belongs to poor coverage that the area with close window of high floor (over 20F) It is wild with signal that the area with close window of middle floor7-20F It is poor coverage close window at lower floor. It is poor coverage and fade zone with another eara.
Poor coverage area
the area about strong signal that outdoor signal form near the window ...

Fade zone about signal


Application suggestion of outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

WCDMA radio network is to be reflected in relativity at coverage, capacity, service quality. So we must think about characteristic of outdoor signaling penetrates indoors to carry out suitable solution. Suggestion:

when it form stronger signal distribute with outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

When we pull into indoor signal to solve problem of poor indoor coverage, we suggestion to take network deployment with same frequency, and it should strengthen indoor signal pointed at poor signal area. Such as: inhabitant subdistrict .

When we pull into indoor signal to solve problem of capacity , we suggestion building indoor system to

reduce capacity consume of indoor use to outdoor cell, and adopt network deployment with different
frequency to absorb traffic with indoor. Such as: main office building with good opening ,venue etc.

It is not enough coverage of outdoor signaling penetrates indoors . We suggestion adopting network deployment with same frequency when pull into indoor coverage. It is satisfied with requirement of coverage and capacity in effect, it can apply to area of good closure such as: tunnel, subway, some market.


Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

2/3G distributing system alternation Indoor & outdoor Networking strategies

3G Multiple cells classification


The principle of 2G/3G indoor system change

It is less investment and fast built as same indoor distribute system with 2G and 3G,


F14 ... F2

The total principle of 2G and 3G changeIt

ensure the original network can get coverage requirement after change ,make the most of original equipment, control change costs


The main style of indoor coverage built with 2G/3G changeThe difficulty of indoor coverage built is to get engineering construction permission.

Multif requen cy mixer


Though same indoor system with 2G and 3G is

the first solution for already finished 2G indoor site.


The method of 2G/3G indoor system change

It is ensure system separate and keep the every system signal loss balance when Same indoor system

It adopt plot of same or different frequency with effect of outdoor signaling

penetrates indoors

It use mixer of good performance for satisfied with 2G/3G isolation., It select suitable point combine with original 2G system feature, and do some

change if necessary.

It use optical fiber for RRU transmission to finish combine with 2G and 3G, it should make up the high lose with WCDMA high frequency to ensure the wcdma indoor coverage.

BBU+RRU is main signal source of 3G indoor systemBBU is to concentrate to put

and RRU adopt optical fiber with zoom out to reduce feed loss. Multi-RRU technique make the flexible with network deployment ,it can replace amplifier to ensure network performance.

Power matching

The difference transmission and space loss of 2G/3G system It need to think about the problem of power matching of system mix for

ensure get same coverage effect involve Power matching at antenna power matching of signal source

WCDMA signal is much 10dB/1.5dB than GSM 900/1800 at space loss

WCDMA system add 13.7dB loss relative GSM900M

WCDMA downlink frequency is 2.11-2.17GHz10dB, the frequency loss is about 10dB

need power matching with antenna outlet combine with brink density of field

WCDMA add insert loss 1dB to adopt mixer with same indoor system

Different frequency network deployment is lower requirement than same frequency network deployment

Same feed with high frequency to add 2.7dB loss.


Signaling source combination- system interworking

Non-source system make up of coupler, feeder antenna, spliter

be suitable with small coverage building As a result of no source equipment trouble point, so cause lower trouble rate ,not need maintenance

and easy to expand

The requirement analysis of prophase can get requirement of 3G power configuration It can use 2G system for small coverage or single fabric non-source system. It should adjust feeder, antenna number and location if necessary.
WCDMA source GSM Source

use with non-source system

WCDMAGSM Double frequency mixer

Antenna system


Signaling source combination- system interworking-1

Source distributing system is to add repeaters and

coverage to passive distribution system Source equipment can compensate signaling source loss in the transmission and expand coverage range


Source system is usually applied to medium or large indoor

coverage system in 2G network Source equipment will induce interference and rise floor noise

3G is self-interfering system and its better not to use repeaters. Repeater shall not bring excessive noises to donor sites

Application principles

Less than 1dB, uplink gain can be adjusted to achieve the balance of uplink and downlink of repeaters. 5W is best, 10W shall be carefully handled and 20W is forbidden. Small-power repeaters are not suggested either

Large-power repeater not recommended

No cascading allowed

Cascading of repeaters will result in deterioration of the uplink repeater not for capacity fulfilling

Repeater used for compensation of coverage especially in lifts


Signaling source combination-system interworking -2

GSM Source
WCDMAGSM dualband combiner WCDMAGSM dual band combiner WCDMAGSM dualband combiner

The following shows the construction of a new 3G indoor

Feeder system

coverage system, sharing the

passive part of the integral system

WCDMA Source

Suitable for places with high coverage requirements and easy wiring .
WCDMAGSM dualband combiner

Feeder system

The above shows adding a dualband combiner to avoid

WCDMAGSM dualband combiner

repetitive wiring.

Feeder system

Suitable for places away from signaling source and where wiring is difficult

GSM source

WCDMAGSM dualband combiner

Feeder system
WCDMA source


Passive devices alternation

If the combiner is available, and WCDMA interface is preserved,

WCDMA signaling can directly into the combiner; if previous combiner

doesnt support WCDMA or no combiner is available, add multi-band combiner

The working frequency of passive devices such as coupler or power

splitter shall be within 8002170 MHz; If WLAN shares indoor distributing system, frequency shall be 800~2500MHz

When using the same cables, 2100MHz signaling will be largely

attenuated and shall be changed to big-diameter cables or add a source transmission power.

Single frequency power divider

Wideband power splitter


Power splitter

Single frequency coupler

Wideband coupler




Feeder Alternation

Feeders used in GSM coverage system are mainly 8D/10D/1/2 and 100 m loss is as shown in the right table.

Feeder loss 8D feeder 10D feeder 1/2feeder 7/8feeder

900MHz 14.0dB 11.1dB 6.9dB 3.9dB

2000MHz 2400MHz 23dB 18dB 10.7dB 6.1dB 26dB 21dB 12.1dB 7.0dB






different losses and 8D & 10D feeders are not suggested in over frequency band over 1.9GHz

The following shall be observed when alternating feeders:

8D/10D feeders longer than 5m in GSM system shall be changed into 1/2feeders
8D/10D feeders are not used for major use.

1/2feeders longer than 50m in GMS system shall be changed into 7/8feeders; 1/2 feeders longer than 30m shall be changed into 7/8feeders
For cost saving purpose, 1/2feeders and connectors can be changed into 8D/10D feeders.

Lift coverage alternation

Access points of lifts are limited, mostly on the floor or the top of the building. Some buildings with over 30 storey have big loss caused by multiple access points.

Yagi is widely used in indoor coverage especially GSM 900 due to high gain,

good direction, and suitable price.

Yagi are not suitable to work in the frequency of 8902500MHz due to great loss generated.

When 3G system is alternated, yagi shall be changed into plate-like antennae and increase antennae so as to ensure enough power level at the edge.


Antenna alternation

In line with small power, multiple antennae principle, based on the test result, ascertain antenna distribution and make signaling equally distributed.

Buildings with simple infrastructure and wide space such as basements, parking lots, airports, supper malls, the number of antennae of which can be relatively small.

Buildings with complicated infrastructure and barriers, such as Karaoke boxes, restaurant rooms, office buildings, the number of antennae of which shall be great and antennae shall be within view.

Utilize the following method to control signaling lease:

shelter Directional antennae perform coverage from edge to indoor ; Control the power of antenna interface

Maintain signaling continuity of different coverage zones Work frequency of antenna is recommended to be 8852500MHz and shall be consistent with the previous antenna indicators (gain, half-power angle etc).


Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Outdoor signaling penetrates indoors

2/3G distributing system alternation Indoor & outdoor Networking strategies

3G Multiple cells classification


Indoor & outdoor Interworking Scheme

lift floor outdoor

f2 f1 f2 f2

f1 f1 f1
Same frequency network

Low floor, previous frequency; higher floors, other frequency Other frequency




Floor one, previous frequency; other floors, other frequency

Same frequency network or low-floor sharing the outdoor frequency and high-floor using other frequency belong to intra-frequency networking Different frequency network and one-floor sharing the outdoor frequency and others using other frequency belong to different frequencies interworking

Intra-frequency scheme analysis

Intra-frequency interworking:

Advantage: smooth transition with performance guaranteed Disadvantage: maximum path loss supported reduces which deducts the coverage of signaling source due to influence of outdoor signaling

Applicable scenes: buildings with big penetration loss and closed indoor environment such as subway and multiple basements.

Low-floor sharing frequency and high-floor dividing in frequencies networking:

Advantage: with intra-frequency advantages and provided with good coverage and capacity coming from different frequency networks.

Disadvantages: restricted by lift wiring, huge hard handover between different frequencies will occur in lifts and on high storys, which will greatly affect users perception of the network; The scheme is based on 2G system and 2G & 3G interworking is hard to realize.

Applicable scenes: buildings with few storys suffering little influence from outdoor interfering signaling


Different frequencies scheme analysis

Different frequencies networking

Advantage: co-use 2G system, share outdoor traffic load and reduce the interference and leakage of indoor and outdoor signaling.

Disadvantage: outdoor cells open compression mode and affect the capacity; indoor and outdoor cells perform hard handover and success rate declines.

Applicable scenario: external wall are mostly made of glass, outdoor signaling interference are relatively great and signaling fades at the access to the first floor.

Networking of the first floor using the outdoor frequency and other floors using other frequency:

Advantage: imbued with the advantages of different frequencies networking; resolve the problem of power consumption of outdoor cells caused by compressed mode; intra-frequency cells on the same floor can provide with smooth handover.

Disadvantage: intra-frequency cells need to be constructed on a floor. Applicable scenario: suitable for high storys, glass fabric and great interference of outdoor signaling.


Characteristics of Indoor & outdoor Networking

The advantage of same frequency networking is to provide smooth transition; But due to great impart of outdoor signaling, maximum path loss supported may be reduced and coverage capability of signaling source may be greatly lowered.

Different frequency networking can provide with bigger capacity, but

hard handover of entrances & exits such as the door and garage shall be carefully planned.

In indoor area, when different frequencies are interworking, Indoor cell can provide good coverage and full capacity with no influence of outdoor signaling and therefore signaling quality is good and handover is very little.


Indoor & outdoor Networking Strategy-1

Same frequency and different frequencies co-exist in the 3G network: when constructing 3G indoor coverage system, networking scheme shall be made

based on actual condition. Its ideal to combine same frequency scheme with
different frequencies scheme. If interference can be controlled, same frequency is suggested; If interference is hard to be controlled, and hard handover can fulfill KPI of indoor coverage system, different frequencies is better.

Suggested value of interference can be controlled is 10dB. Indoors, pilot power of indoor coverage system is 10dB stronger than that of outdoor system; outdoor, pilot power of outdoor BTS is 10dB stronger than that of indoors. For environment with good isolation, same frequency is suggested; For environment with poorer isolation and with capacity requirement, different frequencies

scheme is recommended.


Indoor & outdoor networking strategy -2

Strictly control the interaction of indoors and outdoor signaling. Outdoor signaling comes indoors along the window from top to bottom, while indoor signaling penetrates through the window and come outside. High-level signaling comes into the air and with small effect, thus focus shall be to avoid the indoor signaling entering the outside surrouding roads. To avoid the interaction of signaling of both indoors and outdoor, its suggested:

Control the strong coverage of outdoor signaling indoors. Adjust the transmission power of outdoor cells, add to antenna downtilt or adjust directional angle of the antennae.

Control the leakage of indoor signaling. Properly distribute indoor antennae. Generally,
avoid using omni antenna near the window and use directional antenna pointing indoors. For scenes in which signaling leakage is frequent and easy, its recommended to add antenna point and reduce transmission power of antenna points for even distribution of signaling.


Indoor & outdoor networking strategy-3

Its recommended to perform soft handover to ensure the successful handover between different floors, rooms and lifts, and different enclosures


Handover area of entrances and exits shall be properly set. If performing hard handover, signaling of entrances & exits of the lobby and garage shall be controlled, and optimized if necessary to ensure smooth transition of signaling and success handover.

In the lobby, penetrating signaling from outdoor is strong. Its recommended to induce transit cells to ensure successful handover and to avoid hard handover of lift when signaling from outside enters indoors. Add cells with frequency the same as outdoors and two frequencies have coverage in entrances and exits.

For indoor and outdoor networking, handover area of indoor and outdoor
signaling is near the inside door and that of entrances and exits of garages is near the garage, and that of access to lifts is at the entrances to lifts, and handover area of stairwell and other floors depends on actual condition.

Key points of indoor and outdoor interworking

Outside signaling penetrates indoors

2/3G distributing system alternation Indoor and outdoor networking strategies

Multiple cells classification of 3G IDS


Multiple cells classification of 3G IDS

A WCDMA indoor distribution system shall be divided into multiple cells to fulfill coverage or capacity demand. And the following principles shall be observed:

Handover zones shall be as small as possible The coverage of first floor and lifts comes from the same cell. There are no handover when entering or exiting from the lift to floor 1st.

Make multiple cells classification based on different scenario.


Typical buildings

Shenzhen Telecom Mansion is a building with 24 floors and covers an area of 39483.9 square meters.

Its a typical building of indoor coverage.

Multiple cells classification of Telecom Mansion is a horizontal one. Utilize isolation of multiple cells to reduce handover between cells and floor 1st and

lower lifts belongs to one cell.


Large complex

Large complex has large area, and stadium, airport and railway belong to this group. Take Shenyang olympics stadium for example, it occupies 254,000 square meters with 278 meter length, 235 meter width, and 82 meter heights. It has 6 floors and two-story stand and can hold 60, 000 population.

Multiple cells of Shenyang Olymipics ZTE stadium are classified vertically and handover area of cells in the same story shall be properly planned.


Large Residence Community

Large residence community consists of multiple buildings and pure outdoor macro BTS can hardly achieve full coverage and garden distributing system is necessary to be introduced. Test result reveals that design concept of multiple antenna, small power can

provide complete coverage for outdoor environment of residential quarters and 1-6 storied
residence buildings. The antennae are noticeable.

Ensure WCDMA signaling can reach

the interior of buildings at one time and by reducing antenna power, coverage demand of buildings can be met.

In order to reduce cell number, its suggested to apply multi-RRU singlecell technology to enable the coverage capacity of single cells and to absorb several buildings into one cell. Different colored curves symbolize different cells 36


Use BBU plus RRU to make coverage of subways, and utilize existing cables to enable WCDMA coverage expansion.

The concept of subway multiple cells classification is to consider platforms as cell dividing points and to complete coverage by separate phases.


Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor

Key Points of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor & outdoor Cases of Coordinating Coverage of Indoor &outdoor

Cases of indoor and outdoor cocovering application

Introduction of outdoor environment

Priority of BBU+RRU network Suggestions on indoor and outdoor network


Surrounding Environment of Shenzhen Unicom Building

We choose Shenzhen Unicom Building as one example Unicom Building lies in CBD area of center Futian district. It has dense buildings here, height of buildings is height with average over 20 floors.


Surrounding environment of Shenzhen Unicom Building

Site on the top of Shenzhen Unicom building has four cells with antenna height
about 70 meters. The nearest site is centre site of China Telecom with 355 meters far away from it, which influences this site much.

We can see that Shenzhen Unicom Building has a complicated wireless environment and can be on half of the case that co-coverage by indoor and outdoor together has a restrict requirement about interference and capacity. So

Indoor environment of Shenzhen Unicom Building

Unicom building is a building with 24 floors over earth and totally 39483.9 square meters Unicom building has a glass wall structure and a complicated indoor environment.

Floor B1:underground parking place. Dependent. Floor 1F:hall, vacant inside, spaces co-used by floor 1-3F, glass top, signals outside can penetrate through the top Floor 5F:equipment room, a wide and open place.


Indoor environment of Shenzhen Unicom Building

Indoor environment of Shenzhen Unicom:

Floor 14F:offices,balcony and open top, people can take teas and have meetings here Floor 19F:offices, a good open place Floor 24F:top floor, offices for CEO


Cases of indoor and outdoor co-covering application

Introduction of outdoor environment

Priority of BBU+RRU network Suggestions on indoor and outdoor network


Changes of 2/3G co-used indoor distribution

Indoor coverage in Shenzhen Unicom Building use 3 cells and take the form of BBU+RRU network. Feedback loss is reduced and coverage area is expanded effectively. Floor 5F and 7F are separation points, cell 1 covers floors under 4F(4F included) , cell 2

covers 16F to 5F(16F included), cell 3 covers 17F to 24F, soft handover area are
controlled within emergency stairs.

To make new WCDMA system by fully using GSM feedback part, investment is reduced therefore.


Introduction of BBU+RRU equipment

ZXSDR D-B82000 distribution sites are used in Shenzhen Unicom Building and are consisted by base station unit B8200 and radio remote unit R8840. Technique specification of it is as follows:

Type Frequencies

Item Uplink1920MHz 1980MHz Downlink2110MHz 2170MHz Max supported Sectors Max supported carriers Capability


24CS 4 uplink960CE downlink960CE 123 216Mbps Output power of equipment 40W

Max supported CE channels for pure voice services Max channels in one cell Max throughput of system RF unit type

Specifics of property

Output power of carrier R8840

60W Receiving Sensitivity -126.5dBm@WCDMA S antenna receiveing -129.2dBm@WCDMA D antenna receiving -131.9dBm@WCDMA Q antenna receiving B8200heightwidthdeep88.4482.6197mm R8840heightwidthdeep370320160 mm B82008.75KG R884016.5KG B8200-48V DCranges -57 V DC -40V DC R8840-48V DCranges-35 V DC -60 V DC 220V ACranges 90 V AC 300 V AC 110V ACexpansion supportedranges 85V AC 135V AC

Size of equipment Physical property Weight with full equipement Power supply property Way of power supply, permitted ranges of voltage changes


Priority of BBU+RRU-1
Versatile network

BBU has a property of high integrity, large capability, less volume, light weight etc. BBU can be places together, base band capability can be shared. It is suitable to indoor cases with

not-so-meanly-distributed and can enhance stability of system.

RRU has a small volume, light weight and easy fixed. RRU can be used together with GSM indoor distribution system. RRU uses fiber as transmission, feedback losses are reduced effectively, which can reduce additive losses in 2GHZ and make RRU has the same coverage as GSM. So, it is easy to make 2/3G together.

BBU+RRU can realize coverage and capability planning individually. It is easy to expand network, and changing indoor distribution system is not needed. It is used to meet the need of services in 3G.

Merge of multiple RRU cells, coverage area are expanded effectively

BBU+RRU support RRU single cell merge technique. Single cell support 1 to 6 RRU in indoor situation, which expand coverage area of single cell and realize far coverage of many buildings. This case can meet most situations of indoor coverage.


Priority of BBU+RRU-2
Less work of project, low cost of operation and maintain

BBU+RRU use fiber instead of feedback cable has a simple way of line distribution and is easy to work on. RRU can afford all kinds of requirement of any situation and is not reliable on trunk amplification. In real network trunk amplification can be given up or used in only a few cases, so coverage quality decreasing caused by too much trunk amplification can be avoided.

BBU is set up integrally and can be managed and monitored by OMC. Traditional microcell manner need to monitor trunk amplification excessively.

Change to co-usage is easy

BBU+RRU way can distinguish cells reasonably and easily. Expansion later can be finished by background network administration software. No necessary of further changes in hardware.

BBU,RRU can realize wall-hanging, and is convenient for indoor coverage realization and application.


Cases of indoor and outdoor co-covering application

Introduction of outdoor environment

Priority of BBU+RRU network Suggestions on indoor and outdoor network


Suggestions of indoor and outdoor co-network

Top and nearby sites affect much on Shenzhen Unicom building for its glass wall structure. Potential strong signals coverage come to live due to influence by outside signals. But outside signals can not reach deep in the building.

Unicom building has a large capacity need. To make sure of indoor signals are not affected by strong surrounding signals, we suggest Unicom building take network form of different frequencies, that is using different frequencies indoor and outside door, but the same frequencies in the building.

We can configure cells used by lower floors to dual-frequencies to make this cell to be on transient cell: indoor and outside frequencies. When one user comes indoor, user will switch to indoor cell with the same frequency and switch to indoor cell with different frequencies. When user go out of indoor, compress mode is activated, indoor cell with different frequencies transits to outdoor cell.