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FISH DIVERSITY IN SELECTED SWAMP AREAS IN SELANGOR, MALAYSIA


Muhammad Fahmi Ahmad and Abdullah Samat
School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

LOGO

INTRODUCTION
Among the freshwater habitats found in South-East Asian region, one of the most interesting and probably received less attention are peat swamps and the freshwater swamps because of its harsh environment i.e. highly acidic water. The goal of this study is to examine and compare the species diversity of freshwater fish between different swamps and to understand the relationship between water physical parameter and fish diversity.

METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted from October 2009-July 2010 in three selected swamps in Selangor (see fig.1). Sampling gears: Backpack electrofisher Rectangular scoop net Seine net Gill net Fish trap Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and PAST software.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


1. Fish diversity between sites
There were significance differences among sites H (Shannon diversity index) mean values (Fig. 2).
3 2.7 2.4 Shannons H 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 Sg. Dusun (peat swamp) Sg. Dusun (freshwater swamp) K. Langat a b a,b

Figure 1 Three selected swamps area in Selangor (Red: Sg.Dusun peat swamp; Purple: Sg.Dusun freshwater swamp; Yellow: K.Langat peat swamp).

Figure 2 A box-plot for the three sites based on the Shannons diversity index, H value calculated for each month. a and b indicate significant differences between the site (F2,27 = 16.42; P < 0.001). The empty and filled circles are the outlier values.

CONCLUSIONS
We found that different type of swamps have different fish species

2. Relationship between water physical parameter and fish diversity


H value showed a positive correlation with dissolved oxygen at all sites (Table 1). pH was negatively correlated with species diversity i.e. fishes were expected to be more diverse at site of low pH probably explain the nature of study sites.
Table 1 Results of linear regression analyses between selected water parameter and fish diversity (Shannons H value). Parameters pH Sites Kuala Langat Sg.Dusun(freshwater swamp) Sg.Dusun(peat swamp) Temperature (o C) Kuala Langat Sg.Dusun(freshwater swamp) Sg.Dusun(peat swamp) Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) Kuala Langat Sg.Dusun(freshwater swamp) Sg.Dusun(peat swamp) Total Dissolved Solid (g/l) Kuala Langat Sg.Dusun(freshwater swamp) Sg.Dusun(peat swamp) R2 0.147 0.012 0.193 0.117 0.173 0.058 0.021 0.213 0.030 0.524 0.345 0.437 P-value 0.274 0.766 0.204 0.333 0.232 0.502 0.692 0.180 0.630 0.018 0.074 0.037 Linear relationship y= -0.23x+2.11 y= -0.05x+2.36 y= -0.19x+2.46 y= -0.15x+5.61 y= -0.10x+4.88 y= 0.05x+0.51 y= 1.04x+0.02 y= 0.16x+1.73 y= 0.35x+1.13 y= -13.73x+2.59 y= -14.86x+2.31 y= 4.25x+1.64

diversity. Certain water physical parameter (e.g. dissolved oxygen and pH) are related to fish species diversity in swamp area.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We thank the Department of Wildlife and National Park (PERHILITAN)and Selangor Forestry Department for giving us permission to conduct this study at the swamp forest. Acknowledgement is also extended to Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and their staffs for helping us during this study.

REFERENCES
[1] Ahmad, A. & Khairul-Adha, A.R. 2007. State of Knowledge on Freshwater Fishes of Malaysia. Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia & Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia. 79-86. [2] Kottelat, M., Britz, R., Tan, H.H. & Kai-Erik, W. 2006. Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the worlds smallest vertebrate. Proceedings of The Royal Society B. 273:895-899. [3] Ng, P.K.L., Tay, J.B., Lim, K.K.P. & Yang, C.M. 1992. The Conservation of the fish and other aquatic fauna of the North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest and adjacent areas. Kuala Lumpur: AWB Publication. [4] Ng, P.K.L., Tay, J.B. & Lim, K.K.P. 1994. Diversity and conservation of blackwater fishes in Peninsular Malaysia, particularly in the North Selangor peat swamp forest. Hydrobiologia. 285:203-218 [5] Zakaria-Ismail, M. 1994. Zoogeography and biodiversity of the freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia. Hydrobiologia. 285: 41-48.