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PART II

Mechanics of Deformable Bodies


COURSE CONTENT IN
BRIEF
6. Simple stresses and strains
7. Statically indeterminate problems and thermal stresses
8. Stresses on inclined planes
9. Stresses due to fluid pressure in thin cylinders
The subject strength of materials deals with the relations
between externally applied loads and their internal effects on
bodies. The bodies are no longer assumed to be rigid and the
deformations, however small, are of major interest
Alternatively the subject may be called the mechanics of solids.
The subject, strength of materials or mechanics of materials
involves analytical methods for determining the strength ,
stiffness (deformation characteristics), and stability of various
load carrying members.


6. Simple stresses and strains
GENERAL CONCEPTS
STRESS
No engineering material is perfectly rigid and hence,
when a material is subjected to external load, it
undergoes deformation.
While undergoing deformation, the particles of the
material offer a resisting force (internal force). When
this resisting force equals applied load the equilibrium
condition exists and hence the deformation stops.
These internal forces maintain the externally applied
forces in equilibrium.
Stress = internal resisting force / resisting cross sectional
area
The internal force resisting the deformation per unit area is
called as stress or intensity of stress.
STRESS
A
R
=
gigapascal, 1GPa = 110
9
N/m
2
= 110
3
MPa
= 110
3
N/mm
2


SI unit for stress
N/m
2
also designated as a pascal (Pa)
Pa = N/m
2



kilopascal, 1kPa = 1000 N/m
2

megapascal, 1 MPa = 110
6
N/m
2

= 110
6
N/(10
6
mm
2
) = 1N/mm
2

1 MPa = 1 N/mm
2


STRESS
AXIAL LOADING NORMAL STRESS
Consider a uniform bar of cross
sectional area A, subjected to a
tensile force P.
Consider a section AB normal to
the direction of force P
Let R is the total resisting force
acting on the cross section AB.
Then for equilibrium condition,
R = P
Then from the definition of stress,
normal stress = = R/A = P/A
P
P
P
R
B
A
R
P
STRESS
= Normal Stress
Symbol:
Direct or Normal
Stress:
AXIAL LOADING NORMAL STRESS
Intensity of resisting force perpendicular to or normal
to the section is called the normal stress.
Normal stress may be tensile or compressive
Tensile stress: stresses that cause pulling on the surface of
the section, (particles of the materials tend to pull apart
causing extension in the direction of force)
Compressive stress: stresses that cause pushing on the
surface of the section, (particles of the materials tend to push
together causing shortening in the direction of force)
STRESS
The resultant of the internal forces for
an axially loaded member is normal
to a section cut perpendicular to the
member axis.
A
P
A
F
ave
A
=
A
A
=
A
o o
0
lim
The force intensity on that section is
defined as the normal stress.
STRESS
Illustrative Problems
A composite bar consists of an aluminum section
rigidly fastened between a bronze section and a steel
section as shown in figure. Axial loads are applied at
the positions indicated. Determine the stress in each
section.
Bronze
A= 120 mm
2
4kN

Steel
A= 160 mm
2
Aluminum
A= 180 mm
2
7kN

2kN

13kN

300mm

500mm

400mm

Q 6.1
To calculate the stresses, first determine the forces in
each section.
For equilibrium condition algebraic sum of forces on
LHS of the section must be equal to that of RHS
4kN

7kN

2kN

13kN

To find the Force in bronze section,
consider a section bb
1
as shown in the figure
Bronze
b
b
1
Bronze
4kN

7kN

2kN

13kN

13kN

2kN

7kN

Bronze
4kN

4kN

Force acting on Bronze section is 4kN, tensile
Stress in Bronze
section =
Force in Bronze section
Resisting cross sectional area of the Bronze section
=
2
2 2
/ 33 . 33
120
1000 4
120
4
mm N
mm
N
mm
kN
=

= = 33.33MPa
(Tensile stress)
(= )
b
1
b

4kN

7kN

2kN

13kN

2kN

7kN

Aluminum
9kN

Force in Aluminum section
Force acting on Aluminum section is 9kN,
(Compressive)
4kN

13kN

Aluminum
(= )
4kN

7kN

2kN

13kN

7kN

steel
7kN

Force in steel section
Force acting on Steel section is 7kN, ( Compressive)
4kN

2kN

13kN

steel
Stress in Steel section =
Force in Steel section
Resisting cross sectional area of the Steel section
=
2
2 2
/ 75 . 43
160
1000 7
160
7
mm N
mm
N
mm
kN
=

= = 43.75MPa
Stress in Aluminum
section =
Force in Al section
Resisting cross sectional area of the Al section
=
2
2 2
/ 50
180
1000 9
180
9
mm N
mm
N
mm
kN
=

= = 50MPa
(Compressive stress)
Compressive stress
STRAIN
STRAIN :
when a load acts on the material it will undergo
deformation. Strain is a measure of deformation produced by
the application of external forces.
If a bar is subjected to a direct load, and hence a stress, the
bar will changes in length. If the bar has an original length L
and change in length by an amount L, the linear strain
produced is defined as,
L
L o
c =
Original length
Change in length
=
Strain is a dimensionless quantity.
Linear strain,
Linear Strain
strain normal
stress
= =
= =
L
A
P
o
c
o
L
A
P
A
P
o
c
o
=
= =
2
2
L L
A
P
o o
c
o
= =
=
2
2
STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
In order to compare the strength of various materials it is
necessary to carry out some standard form of test to establish
their relative properties.
One such test is the standard tensile test in which a circular
bar of uniform cross section is subjected to a gradually
increasing tensile load until failure occurs.
Measurement of change in length over a selected gauge
length of the bar are recorded throughout the loading
operation by means of extensometers.
A graph of load verses extension or stress against strain is
drawn as shown in figure.
STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
Typical tensile test curve for mild steel
Proportionality limit
STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
Typical tensile test curve for mild steel showing upper yield point
and lower yield point and also the elastic range and plastic range
Limit of Proportionality :
From the origin O to a point called proportionality limit the
stress strain diagram is a straight line. That is stress is
proportional to strain. Hence proportional limit is the maximum
stress up to which the stress strain relationship is a straight
line and material behaves elastically.
From this we deduce the well known relation, first postulated
by Robert Hooke, that stress is proportional to strain.
Beyond this point, the stress is no longer proportional to strain
A
P
P
P
= o
Load at proportionality limit
Original cross sectional area
=
Stress-strain Diagram
Elastic limit:
It is the stress beyond which the material will not return to its
original shape when unloaded but will retain a permanent
deformation called permanent set. For most practical purposes
it can often be assumed that points corresponding proportional
limit and elastic limit coincide.
Beyond the elastic limit plastic deformation occurs and strains
are not totally recoverable. There will be thus some permanent
deformation when load is removed.
A
P
E
E
= o
Load at proportional limit
Original cross sectional area
=
Stress-strain Diagram
Yield point:
It is the point at which there is an appreciable elongation or
yielding of the material without any corresponding increase of
load.
A
P
Y
Y
= o
Load at yield point
Original cross sectional area
=
Stress-strain Diagram
Ultimate strength:
It is the stress corresponding to
maximum load recorded during
the test. It is stress corresponding
to maximum ordinate in the
stress-strain graph.
A
P
U
U
= o
Maximum load taken by the material
Original cross sectional area
=
Rupture strength (Nominal Breaking stress):
It is the stress at failure.
For most ductile material including structural steel breaking
stress is somewhat lower than ultimate strength because the
rupture strength is computed by dividing the rupture load
(Breaking load) by the original cross sectional area.
A
P
B
B
= o
load at breaking (failure)
Original cross sectional area
=
True breaking stress =
load at breaking (failure)
Actual cross sectional
area
Stress-strain Diagram
The capacity of a material to allow these large plastic
deformations is a measure of ductility of the material
After yield point the graph becomes much more shallow and
covers a much greater portion of the strain axis than the
elastic range.
Ductile Materials:
The capacity of a material to allow large extension i.e. the
ability to be drawn out plastically is termed as its ductility.
Material with high ductility are termed ductile material.
Example: Low carbon steel, mild steel, gold, silver, aluminum
Stress-strain Diagram
Stress-strain Diagram
Percentage elongation
A measure of ductility is obtained by measurements of the
percentage elongation or percentage reduction in area,
defined as,
increase in gauge length (up to fracture)
original gauge length
100
Percentage reduction in
area original area
100
=
=
Reduction in cross sectional area
of necked portion (at fracture)
Cup and cone fracture for a Ductile
Material
Stress-strain Diagram
Brittle Materials :
A brittle material is one which exhibits relatively small
extensions before fracture so that plastic region of the tensile
test graph is much reduced.
Example: steel with higher carbon content, cast iron,
concrete, brick
Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle material
HOOKES LAW
Hookes Law
For all practical purposes, up to certain limit the relationship
between normal stress and linear strain may be said to be
linear for all materials
Thomas Young introduced a constant of proportionality that
came to be known as Youngs modulus.
stress () strain ()
stress ()
strain ()
=
constant
stress ()
strain ()
=
E
Modulus of Elasticity
Youngs Modulus
=
or
HOOKES LAW
Youngs Modulus is defined as the ratio of normal stress to
linear strain within the proportionality limit.
From the experiments, it is known that strain is always a very
small quantity, hence E must be large.
For Mild steel, E = 200GPa = 210
5
MPa = 210
5
N/mm
2

stress ()
strain ()
= E
=
L A
PL
L
L
A
P
o
o
=
The value of the Youngs modulus is a definite property of a
material
Deformations Under Axial Loading
AE
P
E
E = = =
o
c c o
From Hookes Law:
From the definition of strain:
L
o
c =
Equating and solving for the
deformation,
AE
PL
= o
With variations in loading, cross-
section or material properties,

=
i i i
i i
E A
L P
o
A specimen of steel 20mm diameter with a gauge length of
200mm was tested to failure. It undergoes an extension of
0.20mm under a load of 60kN. Load at elastic limit is
120kN. The maximum load is 180kN. The breaking load is
160kN. Total extension is 50mm and the diameter at
fracture is 16mm. Find:
a) Stress at elastic limit
b) Youngs modulus
c) % elongation
d) % reduction in area
e) Ultimate strength
f) Nominal breaking stress
g) True breaking stress
Q.6.2
Solution:
a) Stress at elastic limit,

E
=

Load at elastic limit

Original c/s area

MPa
mm
N
mm
kN
A
P
E
97 . 381 97 . 381
16 . 314
120
2
2
= = = =
b) Youngs Modulus,
GPa
MPa
mm
N
mm
mm
mm
kN
L
L
A
P
E
98 . 190
190980
190980
10 1
98 . 190
200
20 . 0
16 . 314
60
2
3
2
=
=
=

= = = =

o
c
o
(consider a load which is within the elastic
limit)
c) % elongation,
% elongation =

Final length at fracture original length

Original length

% 25 100
200
50
= =
d) % reduction in area =
% 36 100
16 . 314
4
16
16 . 314
2
=

=
t
Original c/s area -Final c/s area at fracture

Original c/s area

e) Ultimate strength,
Ultimate strength =

Maximum load

Original c/s area

) (
/ 96 . 572
16 . 314
180
2
2
MPa
mm N
mm
kN
= =
f) Nominal breaking
Strength =
MPa
kN
29 . 509
16 . 314
160
= =
Breaking load

Original c/s area

g) True breaking
Strength =
MPa
mm
kN
38 . 795
06 . 201
160
2
= =
Breaking load

c/s area at fracture

A composite bar consists of an aluminum section rigidly
fastened between a bronze section and a steel section as
shown in figure. Axial loads are applied at the positions
indicated. Determine the change in each section and the
change in total length. Given
E
br
= 100GPa, E
al
= 70GPa, E
st
= 200GPa
Bronze
A= 120 mm
2
4kN

Steel
A= 160 mm
2
Aluminum
A= 180 mm
2
7kN

2kN

13kN

300mm

500mm

400mm

Q.6.3
From the Example 1, we know that,
P
br
= +4kN (Tension)
P
al
= -9kN (Compression)
P
st
= -7kN (Compression)
stress ()
strain ()
=
E
=
L A
PL
o
=
AE
PL
L = o Change in length =
Change in length of
bronze =
) / ( 10 100 120
300 4000
2 3 2
mm N mm
mm N
L
br


= o
= 0.1mm
Deformation due to
compressive force is
shortening in length, and is
considered as -ve
= + +
st al br
L L L o o o
Change in total
length =
Change in length of
steel section =
) / ( 10 200 160
500 7000
2 3 2
mm N mm
mm N
L
st


= o
= -0.109mm
Change in length of
aluminum section =
) / ( 10 70 180
400 9000
2 3 2
mm N mm
mm N
L
al


= o
= -0.286mm
+0.1 0.286 - 0.109
= -0.295mm
An aluminum rod is fastened to a steel rod as
shown. Axial loads are applied at the positions
shown. The area of cross section of aluminum and
steel rods are 600mm
2
and 300mm
2
respectively.
Find maximum value of P that will satisfy the
following conditions.
a)
st
140 MPa
b)
al
80 MPa
c)Total elongation 1mm,
2P

Steel
Aluminum
2P

4P

2.8m

0.8m

Q.6.4
Take E
al
= 70GPa,
E
st
= 200GPa
To find P, based on the condition,
st
140 MPa
Stress in steel must be less than or equal to 140MPa.
Hence,
st
=
= 140MPa
st
st
A
P
=
2P

Steel
Aluminum
2P

4P

4P

2P

2P

2P

2P

2
/ 140
2
mm N
A
P
st
= =
kN N
A
P
st
21 21000
2
140
= =

=
Tensile
To find P, based on the condition,
al
80 MPa
Stress in aluminum must be less than or equal to
80MPa.
Hence,
al
=
= 80MPa
al
al
A
P
=
2P

Steel
Aluminum
2P

4P

4P

2P

2P

2P

2P

2
/ 80
2
mm N
A
P
al
= =
kN N
A
P
al
24 24000
2
80
= =

=
Compressive
To find P, based on the condition, total elongation 1mm
Total elongation = elongation in aluminum + elongation in
steel.
st al
AE
PL
AE
PL
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
st st
st
al al
al
E A
PL
E A
PL 2 2
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
|
.
|

\
|


=
3 3
10 200 300
2800 2
10 70 600
800 2 P P
1mm
1mm
1mm
P = 18.1kN
Ans: P = 18.1kN (minimum of the three values)
Q.6.5
Derive an expression for the total extension of the tapered bar
of circular cross section shown in the figure, when subjected to
an axial tensile load , W
W
W
A
B
L
Diameter
d
1
Diameter
d
2
Consider an element of length, x at a distance x from A
B
W W
A
x
d
1
d
2
d
x
Diameter at x,
( )
x
L
d d
d

+ =
1 2
1
c/s area at x,
( )
2
1
2
1
4
4
kx d
d
+ = =
t
t
x k d + =
1
Change in length over a
length dx is
( )
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
E kx d
Wdx
AE
PL
dx
2
1
4
t
Change in length over a
length L is
( )
}
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
L
E kx d
Wdx
0
2
1
4
t
Consider an element of length, x at a distance x from A
Put d
1
+kx = t,
Then k dx = dt
Change in length over a
length L is
( )
}
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
L
E kx d
Wdx
0
2
1
4
t
( )
}
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
L
E t
k
dt
W
0
2
4
t
L
L
L
kx d Ek
W
t Ek
W t
Ek
W
0
1 0
0
1 2
) (
1 4 1 4
1
4
(

=
(

=
(

=
+
t t t
E
d d
WL
d Ed
WL

= =
4
4
2 1
2 1
t
t
Q.6.6
A two meter long steel bar is having uniform diameter of 40mm
for a length of 1m, in the next 0.5m its diameter gradually
reduces to 20mm and for remaining 0.5m length diameter
remains 20mm uniform as shown in the figure. If a load of
150kN is applied at the ends, find the stresses in each section
of the bar and total extension of the bar. Take E = 200GPa.
500mm
= 40mm
= 20mm
150kN
150kN
500mm
1000mm
500mm
= 40mm
= 20mm
150kN
150kN
500mm
1000mm
If we take a section any where along the length of the bar, it is
subjected to a load of 150kN.
2
1
3
MPa
kN
MPa
kN
MPa
kN
d
kN
MPa
kN
46 . 477
4
20
150
46 . 477
4
20
150

37 . 119
4
40
150

4
150
37 . 119
4
40
150
2
3
2
min. 2,
2
. max , 2
2
2
2
1
= =
= =
= = =
= =
t
o
t
o
t
o
t
o
t
o
500mm
= 40mm
= 20mm
150kN
150kN
500mm
1000mm
If we take a section any where along the length of the bar, it is
subjected to a load of 150kN.
2
1
3
( )
( )
mm
E
kN
l
mm
E
kN
d Ed
PL
l
mm
E
kN
l
194 . 1
4
20
500 150
597 . 0
20 40
500 150 4 4
597 . 0
4
40
1000 150
2
3
2 1
2
2
1
=

=
=


= =
=

=
t
o
t t
o
t
o
mm l 388 . 2 total, = o
Q.6.7
Derive an expression for the total extension of the tapered bar
AB of rectangular cross section and uniform thickness, as
shown in the figure, when subjected to an axial tensile load ,W.
W
W
A
B
L
d
1
d
2
b

b

W W
A
B
x
d
1
d
2
b

b

dx
Consider an element of length, x at a distance x from A
depth at x,
( )
x
L
d d
d

+ =
1 2
1
c/s area at x,
( )b kx d + =
1
x k d + =
1
Change in length over a
length dx is
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
E b kx d
Wdx
AE
PL
dx 1
Change in length over a
length L is
( )
} |
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
L
E b kx d
Wdx
0
1
( )
1 2
log log d d
k E b
P
e e


=
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
log log
302 . 2
d d
d d E b
L P



=
Q.6.8
Derive an expression for the total extension produced by self
weight of a uniform bar, when the bar is suspended vertically.
L
Diameter
d

P
1
x
P
1
= weight of the bar below
the section,
= volume specific weight
= ( d
2
/4) x
= A x
Diameter
d

dx dx
element
Extension of
the element
due to weight
of the bar
below that,
AE
dx x A
AE
dx P
AE
PL
dx
) (
1

= =
(

=
The above expression
can also be written as
Hence the total extension
entire bar
E
L
E
x
AE
dx x A
L
L
2 2
) (
2
0
2
0

=
(

=

=
}
AE
PL
AE
L AL
A
A
E
L
=

= =
2
1
2
) (
2
2

Where, P = (AL)
= total weight of the bar
SHEAR STRESS
Consider a block or portion of a material shown in Fig.(a)
subjected to a set of equal and opposite forces P. then there is a
tendency for one layer of the material to slide over another to
produce the form failure as shown in Fig.(b)
P
The resisting force developed by any plane ( or section) of the
block will be parallel to the surface as shown in Fig.(c).
P
Fig. a Fig. b Fig. c
P
P
R
R
The resisting forces acting parallel to the surface per unit area is
called as shear stress.
Shear stress ()
=
Shear resistance
Area resisting shear

If block ABCD subjected to shearing stress as shown in
Fig.(d), then it undergoes deformation. The shape will not
remain rectangular, it changes into the form shown in Fig.(e),
as AB
'
C'D.
B
Fig. d
Shear strain
A
P
=
This shear stress will always be tangential to the area on which
it acts

D
C
A

B'
D
C'
A

B
C
Fig. e
The angle of deformation is measured in radians and hence
is non-dimensional.
D

B' C'
A

Fig. e
B
C
| | ~ =
'
= tan strain shear
AB
B B
|
The angle of deformation is then termed as shear strain
|
Shear strain is defined as
the change in angle
between two line element
which are originally right
angles to one another.
SHEAR MODULUS
For materials within the proportionality limit the shear strain is
proportional to the shear stress. Hence the ratio of shear stress
to shear strain is a constant within the proportionality limit.
For Mild steel, G= 80GPa = 80,000MPa = 80,000N/mm
2

Shear stress ()
Shear strain ()
= constant
=
The value of the modulus of rigidity is a definite property
of a material
G
Shear Modulus
or
Modulus of Rigidity
=
example: Shearing Stress
Forces P and P are applied
transversely to the member AB.
A
P
=
ave
t
The corresponding average shear stress is,
The resultant of the internal shear
force distribution is defined as the
shear of the section and is equal to
the load P.
Corresponding internal forces act in
the plane of section C and are
called shearing forces.
The shear stress distribution cannot be
assumed to be uniform.

State of simple shear
Force on the face AB = P = AB t
Consider an element ABCD in a strained material
subjected to shear stress, as shown in the figure
Where, t is the thickness of the
element.

A
B
C D
Force on the face DC is also equal to
P
P
State of simple shear
The element is subjected
to a clockwise moment
Now consider the equilibrium of the element.
(i.e., Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0.)
P AD = ( AB t) AD
P
A
B
C D
But, as the element is actually in equilibrium, there must be
another pair of forces say P' acting on faces AD and BC,
such that they produce a anticlockwise moment equal to ( P
AD )
For the force diagram shown,
Fx = 0, & Fy = 0,
But M = 0
force
State of simple shear
Equn.(1) can be written as
If
1
is the intensity of the shear
stress on the faces AD and BC,
then P ' can be written as,
P '

= '

AD t
P ' AB = P AD
= ( AB t) AD ----- (1)
P
P
A B
C D
P '

P '

( ' AD t ) AB = ( AB t) AD ----- (1)
' =


A B
C D
'

'

State of simple shear
Thus in a strained material a shear stress is always
accompanied by a balancing shear of same intensity at
right angles to itself. This balancing shear is called
complementary shear.
The shear and the
complementary shear together
constitute a state of simple
shear
A
B
C D
'=


'=
Direct stress due to pure shear
Consider a square element of side a subjected to shear
stress as shown in the Fig.(a). Let the thickness of the
square be unity.
Fig.(b) shows the deformed shape of the element. The length of
diagonal DB increases, indicating that it is subjected to tensile
stress. Similarly the length of diagonal AC decreases indicating
that compressive stress.
a

A
B
C D


a

A
B
C D


a

a

Fig.(a).
Fig.(b).
Direct stress due to pure shear
Now consider the section, ADC of the element, Fig.(c).
Resolving the forces in
n
direction, i.e., in the X-direction
shown
a

Fig.(c).
a

a

A
C D
( )a 2
For equilibrium
A

n
C D


a

X

( ) ( )
t o
t o
=
=
=

n
n
a a
Fx
45 cos 2 1 2
0
Direct stress due to pure shear
Therefore the intensity of normal tensile stress
developed on plane BD is numerically equal to the
intensity of shear stress.
Similarly it can be proved that the intensity of compressive
stress developed on plane AC is numerically equal to the
intensity of shear stress.
Poissons Ratio:
Consider the rectangular bar shown in Fig.(a) subjected to a
tensile load. Under the action of this load the bar will increase
in length by an amount L giving a longitudinal strain in the
bar of
POISSONS RATIO
l
l
l
o
c =
Fig.(a)
The associated lateral strains will be equal and are of
opposite sense to the longitudinal strain.
POISSONS RATIO
The bar will also exhibit, reduction in dimension laterally, i.e.
its breadth and depth will both reduce. These change in
lateral dimension is measured as strains in the lateral
direction as given below.
d
d
b
b
lat
o o
c = =
Provided the load on the material is retained within the elastic
range the ratio of the lateral and longitudinal strains will
always be constant. This ratio is termed Poissons ratio ()
POISSONS RATIO
Lateral strain
Longitudinal strain
=
l
l
d
d
o
o
) (

=
l
l
b
b
o
o
) (
OR
Poissons Ratio =
For most engineering metals the value of lies between 0.25 and
0.33
In general
z
y
x
P
P
Poissons
Ratio
Lateral strain
Strain in the direction of
load applied
=
x
x
y
y
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
OR
x
x
z
z
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
L
x
L
y
L
z
Poissons Ratio =
In general
Strain in X-direction =
x
z
y
x
P
x
P
x
L
x
L
y
L
z
x
x
l
l o
=
Strain in Y-direction =
y


Strain in Z-direction =
z
x
x
y
y
l
l
l
l
o

o
= =
x
x
z
z
l
l
l
l o

o
= =
Load applied in Y-direction
Poissons
Ratio
Lateral strain
Strain in the direction of
load applied
=
y
y
x
x
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
OR
y
y
z
z
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
z
y
x
P
y
L
x
L
y
L
z
P
y
Strain in X-direction =
x
y
y
x
x
l
l
l
l
o

o
= =
Load applied in Z-direction
Poissons
Ratio
Lateral strain
Strain in the direction of
load applied
=
z
z
x
x
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
OR
z
z
y
y
l
l
l
l
o
o
=
y
z
x
P
z
L
x
L
y
L
z
P
z
Strain in X-direction =
x
z
z
x
x
l
l
l
l o

o
= =
Load applied in X & Y direction
Strain in X-direction =
x
z
y
x
P
x
P
x
L
x
L
y
L
z
P
y
P
y
Strain in Y-direction =
y
E E
x
y
o

o
=
Strain in Z-direction =
z
E E
x
y
o

o
=
E E
y
x
o

o
=
General
case:
Strain in X-direction =
x
Strain in Y-direction =
y
Strain in Z-direction =
z
z
y
x
P
x P
x
P
y
P
y
P
z
P
z
E E E
z
y
x
x
o

o
c =
E E E
z x
y
y
o

o
c =
E E E
x
y
z
z
o

o
c =

y
Bulk Modulus
Bulk Modulus
A body subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal direct
stresses undergoes volumetric change without distortion of
shape.
If V is the original volume and dV is the change in volume,
then dV/V is called volumetric strain.
Bulk modulus, K
A body subjected to three mutually perpendicular equal direct
stresses then the ratio of stress to volumetric strain is called
Bulk Modulus.
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
dV
o
Relationship between volumetric strain and linear strain
Relative to the unstressed state, the change
in volume per unit volume is
( )( )( ) | | | |
e unit volum per in volume change
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
=
+ + =
+ + + = + + + =
z y x
z y x z y x
dV
c c c
c c c c c c
Consider a cube of side 1unit, subjected to
three mutually perpendicular direct
stresses as shown in the figure.
Relationship between volumetric strain and linear strain
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
E E E
z
y
x
o

o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
E E E
z x
y
o

o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
E E E
x
y
z
o

o
z y x
V
dV
c c c + + =
Volumetric strain



( )
z y x
E
o o o

+ +

=
2 1
For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,
( )
( )

2 - 1 3K E
or
modulus bulk
2 1 3
=
=

=
E
K
o o o o = = =
z y x
( )
( ) 3
2 1
2 1
o

o o o

E V
dV
E V
dV
z y x

=
+ +

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
dV
K
o
Relationship between youngs modulus of elasticity (E)
and modulus of rigidity (G) :-
A
D

B

a
a
45
A
1


B
1
Consider a square element ABCD of side a subjected to pure shear
. DA'B'C is the deformed shape due to shear . Drop a perpendicular
AH to diagonal A'C.
Strain in the diagonal AC = /E (- /E) [
n
= ]
= /E [ 1 + ] -----------(1)
Strain along the diagonal AC=(A'CAC)/AC=(A'CCH)/AC=A'H/AC
C
H
In le AA'H
Cos 45 = A'H/AA'
A'H= AA' 1/2
AC = 2 AD ( AC = AD
2
+AD
2
)
Strain along the diagonal AC = AA'/ (2 2 AD)=/2 ----(2)
Modulus of rigidity = G = /
= /G
Substituting in (2)
Strain along the diagonal AC = /2G -----------(3)
Equating (1) & (3)
/2G = /E[1+]
E=2G(1+ )
Substituting in (1)
E = 2G[ 1+(3K 2G)/ (2G+6K)]
E = 18GK/( 2G+6K)
E = 9GK/(G+3K)
Relationship between E, G, and K:-
We have
E = 2G( 1+ ) -----------(1)
E = 3K( 1-2) -----------(2)
Equating (1) & (2)
2G( 1+ ) =3K( 1- 2)
2G + 2G=3K- 6K
= (3K- 2G) /(2G +6K)
(1) A bar of certain material 50 mm square is subjected to an axial
pull of 150KN. The extension over a length of 100mm is 0.05mm
and decrease in each side is 0.0065mm. Calculate (i) E (ii) (iii) G
(iv) K

Solution:
(i) E = Stress/ Strain = (P/A)/ (dL/L) = (15010
3
100)/(50 50 0.05)
E = 1.2 x 10
5
N/mm
2
(ii) = Lateral strain/ Longitudinal strain = (0.0065/50)/(0.05/100) = 0.26
(iii) E = 2G(1+ )
G= E/(2 (1+ )) = (1.2 10
5
)/ (2 (1+ 0.26)) = 0.47 10
5
N/mm
2
(iv) E = 3K(1-2)
K= E/(1-2) = (1.2 10
5
)/ (3 (1- 2 0.26)) = 8.3 10
4
N/mm
2
(2) A tension test is subjected on a mild steel tube of external
diameter 18mm and internal diameter 12mm acted upon by
an axial load of 2KN produces an extension of 3.36 x 10
-
3
mm on a length of 50mm and a lateral contraction of 3.62
x 10
-4
mm of outer diameter. Determine E, ,G and K.
(i) E = Stress/Strain = (2 10
3
50)/ (/4(18
2
12
2
) 3.36 10
-3
)
= 2.11 10
5
N/mm
2
ii) =lateral strain/longitudinal strain = [(3.62 10
-4
)/18]/[(3.36 10
-3
)/50]
= 0.3
iii) E = 2G (1 + )
G = E / 2(1+ ) = (2.11 10
5
)/(2 1.3) = 81.15 10
3
N/mm
2

iv) E = 3K(1 -2 )
K = E/ [3(1-2 )] = (2.1110
5
)/{3[1-(2 0.3)]} = 175.42 10
3
N/mm
2
Working stress: It is obvious that one cannot take risk of
loading a member to its ultimate strength, in practice. The
maximum stress to which the material of a member is
subjected to in practice is called working stress.
This value should be well within the elastic limit in elastic
design method.
Factor of safety: Because of uncertainty of loading
conditions, design procedure, production methods, etc.,
designers generally introduce a factor of safety into their
design, defined as follows
Factor of safety =
Allowable working
stress
Maximum stress
Allowable working
stress
Yield stress (or proof stress)
or
Homogeneous: A material which has a uniform structure
throughout without any flaws or discontinuities.
Malleability: A property closely related to ductility, which
defines a materials ability to be hammered out in to thin
sheets
Isotropic: If a material exhibits uniform properties throughout
in all directions ,it is said to be isotropic.
Anisotropic: If a material does not exhibit uniform properties
throughout in all directions ,it is said to be anisotropic or
nonisotropic.
Q.6.9
A metallic bar 250mm100mm50mm is loaded as shown in
the figure. Find the change in each dimension and total
volume. Take E = 200GPa, Poisson's ratio, = 0.25
250
400kN

50
100
2000kN

4000kN

4000kN

400kN

2000kN

Stresses in different
directions
100
250
400kN

50
2000kN

4000kN

100
250
50
MPa
mm
N
x
80
50 100
1000 400
2
=

= o
MPa
mm
N
y
160
100 250
1000 4000
2
=

= o
MPa
mm
N
z
160
50 250
1000 2000
2
=

= o
Stresses in different direction
MPa 80
MPa 160
MPa 160
E E E
z
y
x
x
o

o
c =
4
10 4
160 160 80

=
+

+
=
E E E
x
c
mm l
l
l
l
x
x
x
x
1 . 0
10 4
250
4
=
= =

o
o o
E E E
z x
y
y
o

o
c =
( )
3
10 1 . 1
160 80 160

=
+

=
E E E
y
c
( )
mm l
l
l
l
y
y
y
y
005 . 0
10 1 . 1
50
3
=
= =

o
o o
MPa 80
MPa 160
MPa 160
( )
mm l
l
l
l
z
z
z
z
09 . 0
10 9
250
4
+ =
+ = =

o
o o
E E E
x
y
z
z
o

o
c =
( )
4
10 9
80 160 160

+ =
+

+
=
E E E
z
c
MPa 80
MPa 160
MPa 160
( )
( ) ( )
3
4 4
4 4
250
50 100 250 10 2 10 2
10 2 10 9 11 4
mm dV
V dV
V
dV
+ =
= =
= + =



z y x
V
dV
c c c + + =
To find change in volume
( )
( )
( )
4
10 2 80
E
2 - 1
160 160 80
2 1
2 1

= =
+ +

=
+ +

o o o

E V
dV
E V
dV
z y x
Alternatively,
MPa 80
MPa 160
MPa 160
Q.6.10
A metallic bar 250mm100mm50mm is loaded as shown in
the Fig. shown below. Find the change in value that should
be made in 4000kN load, in order that there should be no
change in the volume of the bar. Take E = 200GPa, Poisson's
ratio, = 0.25
250
400kN

50
100
2000kN

4000kN

We know that
( )
z y x
E V
dV
o o o
u
+ +

=
2 1
In order that change in volume to be
zero
( )
( ) 0
2 1
0
= + +
+ +

=
z y x
z y x
E
o o o
o o o
u
( )
kN P
P
MPa
y
y
y
y
6000
100 250
240
240
0 160 80
=

=
=
= + + +
o
o
MPa 80
MPa 160
MPa 160
The change in value should be an
addition of 2000kN compressive force
in Y-direction
Exercise Problems
Q1. An aluminum tube is rigidly fastened between a brass
rod and steel rod. Axial loads are applied as indicated in the
figure. Determine the stresses in each material and total
deformation. Take E
a
=70GPa, E
b
=100GPa, E
s
=200GPa
500mm 700mm 600mm
steel
aluminum
brass
20kN 15kN 15kN 10kN
A
b
=700mm
2
A
a
=1000mm
2
A
s
=800mm
2
Ans:
b
=28.57MPa,
a
=5MPa,
s
=12.5MPa, l = - 0.142mm
Q2. A 2.4m long steel bar has uniform diameter of 40mm for
a length of 1.2m and in the next 0.6m of its length its
diameter gradually reduces to D mm and for remaining
0.6m of its length diameter remains the same as shown in
the figure. When a load of 200kN is applied to this bar
extension observed is equal to 2.59mm. Determine the
diameter D of the bar. Take E =200GPa
= 40mm
= D mm
200kN
200kN
500mm 500mm 1000mm
Q3. The diameter of a specimen is found to reduce by
0.004mm when it is subjected to a tensile force of 19kN.
The initial diameter of the specimen was 20mm. Taking
modulus of rigidity as 40GPa determine the value of E and

Ans: E=110GPa, =0.36
Q4. A circular bar of brass is to be loaded by a shear load of
30kN. Determine the necessary diameter of the bars (a) in
single shear (b) in double shear, if the shear stress in
material must not exceed 50MPa.
Ans: 27.6, 19.5mm
Q5. Determine the largest weight W that can be supported
by the two wires shown. Stresses in wires AB and AC are
not to exceed 100MPa and 150MPa respectively. The cross
sectional areas of the two wires are 400mm
2
for AB and
200mm
2
for AC.
Ans: 33.4kN
W
A
C
B
30
0
45
0
Q6. A homogeneous rigid bar of weight 1500N carries a
2000N load as shown. The bar is supported by a pin at B
and a 10mm diameter cable CD. Determine the stress in
the cable
Ans: 87.53MPa
3m
A
C
B
2000 N

3m
D
Q7. A stepped bar with three different cross-sectional
areas, is fixed at one end and loaded as shown in the
figure. Determine the stress and deformation in each
portions. Also find the net change in the length of the
bar. Take E = 200GPa
250mm 270mm 320mm
300mm
2
450mm
2
250mm
2
10kN
40kN
20kN
Ans: -33.33, -120, 22.2MPa, -0.042, -0.192, 0.03mm, -0.204mm
Q8. The coupling shown in figure is constructed from steel of
rectangular cross-section and is designed to transmit a
tensile force of 50kN. If the bolt is of 15mm diameter
calculate:
a) The shear stress in the bolt;
b) The direct stress in the plate;
c) The direct stress in the forked end of the coupling.
Ans: a)141.5MPa, b)166.7MPa, c)83.3MPa
Q9. The maximum safe compressive stress in a hardened
steel punch is limited to 1000MPa, and the punch is used to
pierce circular holes in mild steel plate 20mm thick. If the
ultimate shearing stress is 312.5MPa, calculate the
smallest diameter of hole that can be pierced.
Ans: 25mm
Q10. A rectangular bar of 250mm long is 75mm wide and
25mm thick. It is loaded with an axial tensile load of 200kN,
together with a normal compressive force of 2000kN on
face 75mm250mm and a tensile force 400kN on face
25mm250mm. Calculate the change in length, breadth,
thickness and volume. Take E = 200GPa & =0.3
Ans: 0.15,0.024,0.0197mm, 60mm
3

Q11. A piece of 180mm long by 30mm square is in
compression under a load of 90kN as shown in the figure. If
the modulus of elasticity of the material is 120GPa and
Poissons ratio is 0.25, find the change in the length if all
lateral strain is prevented by the application of uniform
lateral external pressure of suitable intensity.
180
90kN

30
30
Ans: 0.125mm
Q12. Define the terms: stress, strain, elastic limit,
proportionality limit, yield stress, ultimate stress, proof
stress, true stress, factor of safety, Youngs modulus,
modulus of rigidity, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio,
Q13. Draw a typical stress-strain diagram for mild steel rod
under tension and mark the salient points.
Q14 Diameter of a bar of length L varies from D
1
at one end
to D
2
at the other end. Find the extension of the bar under
the axial load P
Q15. Derive the relationship between Youngs modulus and
modulus of rigidity.
Q17 A flat plate of thickness t tapers uniformly from a width
b
1
at one end to b
2
at the other end, in a length of L units.
Determine the extension of the plate due to a pull P.

Q18 Find the extension of a conical rod due to its own weight
when suspended vertically with its base at the top.
Q19. Prove that a material subjected to pure shear in two
perpendicular planes has a diagonal tension and
compression of same magnitude at 45
o
to the planes of
shear.
Q16 Derive the relationship between Youngs modulus and
Bulk modulus.
Q20. For a given material E=1.110
5
N/mm
2
&
G=0.4310
5
N/mm
2
.Find bulk modulus & lateral
contraction of round bar of 40mm diameter & 2.5m
length when stretched by 2.5mm. ANS:
K=83.33Gpa, Lateral contraction=0.011mm
Q21. The modulus of rigidity of a material is 0.810
5
N/mm
2
,
when 6mm6mm bar of this material subjected to an axial
pull of 3600N.It was found that the lateral dimension of the
bar is changed to 5.9991mm5.9991mm. Find & E.
ANS: =0.31, E= 210Gpa.