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Wireless Curriculum Development Section

ISSUE
WCDMA RNP Application of
TMA
1.0
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Review
The core of a TMA is a low noise amplifier used
for solving a limited uplink coverage problem
and increase the uplink coverage area.
This Slide first of all describes the antenna
feeder system, and then analyzes relevant
specifications and summarizes the advantages
and disadvantages of using a TMA in terms of
technical specifications, reliability and cost, etc.
At the end, it offers suggestions on when to use
a TMA.
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Objectives
Know the TMA structure and its
place in antenna feeder system.
Understand the advantages and
disadvantages of using a TMA in
terms of technical specifications,
reliability and cost
use a TMA.
Upon completion of this course,you will be able to:
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Course Contents

Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Antenna Feeder System
Antenna, TMA, feeder cables,
jumpers and lightning arresters.
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Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Functional Block Diagram of a TMA

There are Tx and Rx channels in the TMA module.
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Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
TMA NF Value:
According to design specifications, the TMA
gain is 12+/-1dB and its typical value is 12dB
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Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
NDDL Block Diagram:

1
st
stage amplifier 2
nd
stage amplifier 3
rd
stage amplifier
6dB fixed
attenuator
0~12dB variable
attenuator
Switch
NDDL
One of the gain-adjustable LNA with typical gain 38dB,
32dB, 31dB, 30dB and 20dB, is used for WCDMA
network.
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Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Design rule without TMA
Design rule with TMA
LNA gain of NDDL shall be set to 38dB.
In order to guarantee that the receiver amplifier behind NDDL
can operate in the linear range, the gain from antenna output
to NDDL Rx output port has to be kept as 38dB.

Calculation:
TMA gain cable loss jumper loss from the feeder cable connector to TMA
connector lightning arrester insertion loss jumper loss from the lightning
arrester connector to cabinet top connector jumper loss from the NDDL
connector to cabinet top connector + NDDL Gain
= 38dB
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Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Jumper Loss
The typical distance of jumper from antenna connector to TMA
connector is 1.5m, and 2.5m from TMA connector to feeder
cable connector, 1.5m from the lightning arrester connector to
cabinet-top connector.
Based on the attenuation specification of 1/2 jumpers, we
assume that the total loss of 1/2 jumpers from the TMA
connector to cabinet-top connectors is 0.8dB, and the loss of
jumpers from the TMA connector to antenna connector is
0.3dB, when TMA is used.
The typical distance from the feeder cable connector to
antenna connector is 2.5m, when no TMA is used. So the loss
of jumper is 0.5dB.
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Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Cable loss from the NDDL connector to cabinet-top
connector, this specification is 0.4dB
The typical lightning arrester insertion loss is 0.2dB.
The loss rate of an Andrew 7/8 feeder cable is
6.11dB/100m. If the length of such a cable is L(m), its
loss is L*6.11/100dB. The loss rate of a 5/4 feeder
cable is 4.43dB/100m. If the length of such a cable is
L(m), its loss is L*4.43/100 dB.
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Course Contents

Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
NF calculation, with TMA

NF at the cabinet-top connector with the NDDL gain being
38dB + cable loss + total jumper loss + lightning arrester
insertion loss.
Suppose that the sum of the total loss of cables and jumpers
from the antenna connector to cabinet-top connectors and the
lightning arrester insertion loss is X.
When no TMA is used, NF = 2.2 + X,
Where in 2.2 is the NF at the cabinet-top connector when the
NDDL gain is 38dB.
Except cable loss, total jumper loss + lightning arrester
insertion loss = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1.0 dB.
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Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
NF calculation without TMA

TMA gain - cable loss - jumper loss from the feeder cable
connector to TMA connector - lightning arrester insertion loss
- jumper loss from the lightning arrester connector to cabinet-
top connector - jumper loss from the NDDL connector to
cabinet-top connector + NDDL Gain = 38dB
12dB - cable loss - 0.5dB - 02dB - 0.3dB - 0.4dB + NDDL Gain =
38dB

Cable loss = NDDL Gain - 27.4
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Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
NF calculation with TMA

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Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
NF calculation with TMA

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Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
NF decreased with TMA

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Course Contents

Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Influences of a TMA
Calculation of receiver sensitivity

Receiver sensitivity (dBm)
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF _Ant connector (dB)
+ 10lg [1000 * Rb (kHz)]+ EbvsNo required (dB).

Using TMA, UL sensitivity of NodeB increases as NF
decreases. The increased value of sensitivity is equal to
the decreased NF.
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Influences of a TMA
Receiver sensitivity

If no external interference exists, the noise at the receiver when a
TMA is used is -174dBm/Hz + 10log (Rc) + NF with TMA, and that
when no TMA is used is -174dBm/Hz + 10log (Rc) + NF without
TMA. UL sensitivity of NodeB will increase as NF decreases, and
the increase of sensitivity is equal to the decrease in the NF.
If external interference exists, the noise at the receiver when a
TMA is used is -174dBm/Hz + 10log (Rc) + Interference + NF with
TMA, and that when no TMA is used is -174dBm/Hz + 10log (Rc) +
Interference + NF without TMA. If the interference level is high,
the noise of receiver depends mainly on the interference level, in
which case the decrease in the NF has a very small influence on
the noise to receiver.
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Influences of a TMA
Coverage

The max path loss (PL) on cell edge
PL (dB) = [ EiRP (dBm) (Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm) - Gain of
Antenna (dBi) + Body Loss (dB) + Interference Margin (dB) - SHO Gain
over fast fading (dB) + Fast Fading Margin (dB)) ]- Penetration Loss (dB)
- Slow Fading Margin (dB) + SHO Gain over Slow Fading (dB).

COST231-HATA model
PL (dB) = 46.3 + 33.9*log(f) - 13.82*log(Hb) - a(Hm)
+[44.9 - 6.55*log(Hb)]*log(d) + Cm
a(Hm) = [1.1*log(f) - 0.7]*Hm -[1.56*log(f) - 0.8]
Cm = 0 dB for medium sized city and suburban centers with moderate
tree density
Cm = 3 dB for metropolitan centers
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Influences of a TMA
Coverage

if f (frequency), Hm (height of mobile) and Cm are fixed
values and Hb (height of BS) is 30m,
PL (dB) = 35.22* log (d) + X

If Hb is 50m,
PL (dB) = 33.77* log (d) + X
X represent other items in the formula.
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Influences of a TMA
Coverage calculation

NDDL amplification 28 29 30 31 32
Feeder cable loss (dB) 0.6 1.6 2.6 3.6 4.6
NF at the antenna connector (dB) 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.9
NF at the antenna connector
without TMA (dB)
3.8 4.8 5.8 6.8 7.8
NF Decrease (dB) 1.5 2.4 3.3 4.1 4.9
Increase of sensitivity (dB) 1.5 2.4 3.3 4.1 4.9
Increase of cell radius,
Hb 30m (%)
10.3 17.0 24.1 30.7 37.8
Increase of cell area,
Hb 30m (%)
21.7 36.9 53.9 70.9 89.8
Increase of cell radius,
Hb 50m (%)
10.8 17.8 25.2 32.3 39.7
Increase of cell area,
Hb 50m (%)
22.7 38.7 56.8 74.9 95.1
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Influences of a TMA
Coverage example

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Influences of a TMA
Coverage analysis

TMA increases UL sensitivity, enhances the coverage area,
lowers the call-drop rate and improves the communication
quality.
TMA lowers the output power of MS required and reduces
UL interference.
The cost of the mobile network construction can be also
reduced because of the increased effective coverage area
of a NodeB equipped with TMA.
In addition, because a TMA can improve the level and
quality of the UL signal, it can improve the communication
quality of both traffic channels and signaling channels.
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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage improved - DXB Port Saeed Site using TMA

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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage Improved - DXB Port Saeed Site using TMA

Comparison of UE Tx power with and without TMA, having 4.25 dB
average difference.
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Influences of a TMA
Site Name AL TALA
Structure Type Monopole
Antenna Height 30m
Antenna Type JB 5162100
Feeder Type 7/8" LCF-J50 RFS
Feeder Length 35m
Example of coverage improved - SHJ Al Tala site using TMA

No TMA TMA
Cable attenuation and other loss (dB) 4 4
NDDL Gain (dB) 38 30
NF (dB) 5.8 2.5
NF Improved (dB) 3.3
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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage Improved - SHJ Al Tala site using TMA
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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage improved - SHJ Al Tala site using TMA
Comparison of UE average Tx power with and without TMA, having
3.22 dB difference.
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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage improved - SHJ Al Tala site using TMA
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Influences of a TMA
Example of coverage improved - SHJ Al Tala site using TMA
Comparison of DL average CPICH RSCP with and without TMA, having
0.14 dB difference.
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Influences of a TMA
UL capacity analysis
: load
: adjacent cell interference factor
W / R
b
: processing gain
N: user number
0
/
( )
1 /
b
b
W R
N
f E I
q
=
+
Capacity has no relation with the use of TMA in the
case of a cell with UL capacity-limited.
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity analysis
N Ns =
(

1
(1 ) ( )
c
s
pu virtual
N
A f
q
u
=
+
i i
PL P f W N
W N
1 1 0
0
/ ) (
1
+ +
=
u
q

C
: power ratio of CCH,
pu
: DL originating load
A
virtual
: load of virtual services/user
: non-orthogonal factor, : adjacent cell interference factor
PL
1i
: DL average coupling loss of the cell, P
1i
: DL output power.
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity analysis
TMA may increase DL coupling loss and
decrease DL capacity.
Assumed conditions:
DL insertion loss of the TMA: 0.7dB
(Tx filter loss 0.4dB + jumper loss 0.3dB)
non-orthogonal factor: 0.4
adjacent cell interference factor: 0.65
NoW: thermal noise power.
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity calculation
Conditions: 1. DL capacity-limited 2. unchanged cell radius
DL originating load 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Coupling loss with TMA (dB) 125 130 135 140 145
Coupling loss with TMA (dB) 125.7 130.7
135.
7
140.7 145.7
DL non-orthogonal factor 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Adjacent interference 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65
DL capacity when a TMA is
used/not used
1.0 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.96
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity analysis
DL capacity decreases by 0.3 ~ 9.7% when the average
DL coupling loss increases from 130dB to 150dB.
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity analysis
If the UL capacity is limited before a TMA is used,
the cell radius, both UL/DL coverage radiuses,
increases due to the decrease in the NodeB NF after a
TMA is used.
We can approximately assume that the increase
in the DL coupling loss is equal to the increase in the
UL coupling loss plus TMA insertion loss which is
0.7dB.
Suppose that the DL capacity remains not
limited, and the DL non-orthogonal factor remains
unchanged at 0.4.
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Influences of a TMA
DL capacity calculation
NDDL amplification 28 29 30 31 32
Feeder cable loss (dB) 0.6 1.6 2.6 3.6 4.6
NF at the antenna connector (dB) 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.9
NF at the antenna connector
without TMA (dB)
3.8 4.8 5.8 6.8 7.8
NF decrease (dB) 1.5 2.4 3.3 4.1 4.9
Increase in DL coupling loss 2.2 3.1 4.0 4.8 5.6
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Influences of a TMA
Impact of DL capacity by cable losses and types
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Influences of a TMA
Other factors
TMA allows for a longer distance between antenna
and cabinet, and makes site selection easier.
Despite its higher cost, TMA may expand the
coverage area, reduce the number of sites required and
equipment room cost.
Using TMA can reduce the system reliability because
it is connected in series with the NodeB. The failure rate of
a series connection is equal to the sum of failure rates of
its components, and the downtime of a series connection
is equal to the sum of downtimes of its components.
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Course Contents

Antenna Feeder System
Functional Block Diagram of a TMA
Analysis of Specifications Related to NF Calculation
Calculation of NF at the Antenna Connector
Influences of a TMA
Suggestions
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Suggestions
TMA is recommended to be used under
the conditions below.
A large coverage area, e.g. rural, suburban or
highway, because UL coverage is limited for the
most of time but DL coverage is usually not limited.
An area, e.g. dense urban or urban,
according to RNP, DL capacity is not limited. UL
sensitivity and coverage area can be increased by
using TMA.
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Suggestions
Receiver noise using TMA:
-174dBm/Hz + 10log(Rc) + Interference + N (with
TMA)
-174dBm/Hz + 10log(Rc) + Interference + NF
(without TMA)
When the decrease in the noise after TMA is used,
=(-174dBm/Hz + 10log(Rc) + Interference + NF without
TMA)- [-174dBm/Hz + 10log(Rc) + Interference + NF
with TMA] > X dB.
Analysis method is the same as that without TMA.
and TMA is recommended to be used.
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Suggestions
About selection of feeder cables
7/8 cable is used in below 50m length.
5/4 cable is used in above 50m length.

The reason is the maximum cable loss that
the NDDL can support is 6dB including cable,
jumper and insertion losses.
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