Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Management Information System

Text Book:System Analysis and Design in a Changing World

13605804361 http://www.misxp.com huanghong@zjut.edu.cn

Management information system

1_ 1

Huang Hong

The Objectives of This Course


This courses objective is to teach the basic concepts and techniques that are needed to develop information system In order to achieve this, the course was organized into four part: Part 1: the modern systems analyst
Discussing the work of modern systems analyst, the system development project,SDLC,methodologies,models,tools, and techniques

Part 2: systems analysis tasks


Discussing in detail the system analysis techniques

Part 3: System Design tasks


Discussing in detail the system design techniques

Part 4: implementation and support


Discussing various system implementation approaches

Management information system

1_ 2

Huang Hong

References
Robert Schulches, Mary Summer, Management Information System (fourth edition ), Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P.Laudon, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS, .IT--- IT http://www.51cmm.com http://www.amteam.org AMT http://www.misxp.com

Management information system

1_ 3

Huang Hong

CHAPTER 1 THE WORLD OF THE MODERN SYSTEMS ANALYST


Questions that you should be able to answer after Learning this chapter:
Explain the key role of a systems analyst in business Describe the various types of systems an analyst might work on Explain the importance of technical, people, and business skills for an analyst Explain why ethical()behavior is crucial for a systems analysts career Describe the many types of technology an analyst needs to understand Describe various job titles and places of employment where analysis and design work is done Discuss the analysts role in strategic planning for an organization Describe the analysts role in a system development project

Management information system

1_ 4

Huang Hong

INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVERYWHERE


LIFE IN THE FUTURE

Management information system

1_ 5

Huang Hong

A Systems Analyst at Rutherford Manufacturing


Lets watch a flash movie, then try to answer the following questions: What is a systems analysts work? Is a systems analyst a very important role in an enterprise? What knowledge and skills does a systems analyst need?

Management information system

1_ 6

Huang Hong

System and Information systems


System
A collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome.

Information system
a collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks. Information systems are very important to modern business organizations.

Management information system

1_ 7

Huang Hong

SYSTEMS THAT SOLVE BUSINESS PROBLEMS


Subsystem
A system that is a part of a larger system, or a component of a system

Supersystem
A large system that contains other systems, one system can be divided into subsystems.

Functional decomposition
Dividing a system into components based on subsystems that in turn are further divided into subsystems

Management information system

1_ 8

Huang Hong

SYSTEM BOUNDARY
System boundary
The separation between a system and its environment that inputs and outputs must cross. Environment surrounding the system

Manual part of the system

Automation boundary
The separation between the automated part and manual part of a system

Automated part of the system

Management information system

1_ 9

Huang Hong

Information Systems Are Built to Solve Business Problems


Problem examples
Order processing Payroll ()transaction() processing Present financial reports Provided Detailed shipment information Make production plan Etc.

Management information system

1_ 10

Huang Hong

An ANALYST is a BUSINESS PROBLEM SOLVER


To build a successful information system, thorough system analysis and system design are needed, and this is the job of systems analysts. Developing information systems is not just about writing programs, but to solve problems for organizations. So the systems analyst is a problem solver, not just a programmer. System analysis
The process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should do.

System design
The process of specifying in detail how the many component parts of the information system should be physically implemented

Systems analyst
A business professional who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using information technology

Management information system

1_ 11

Huang Hong

THE ANALYST AS A BUSINESS PROBLEM SOLVER(cont)


How does an analyst solve problems? Work steps
Best solution Fewest risks Most benefits Each solution What should it do What are the component parts How should they be configured What technology should be used to build the different components Who should build them Management information system Define the details Of the chosen solution Implement the solution Research and understand the problem Decide which solution is best and Make a recommendation benefit/cost analysis

Develop a set of Possible solutions (alternatives)

Monitor to make sure That you obtain the Desired results

The analysts approach to problem solving


1_ 12 Huang Hong

Design specification
Database User interface Network Operating procedure Program modules Conversion plan

Management information system

1_ 13

Huang Hong

SYSTEMS THAT SOLVE BUSINESS PROBLEMS(cont)


Types of information systems
Transaction processing systems(TPS)
Information systems that capture and record information about the transactions that affect the organization

Management information systems(MIS)


Information systems that take information captured by transaction-processing systems and produce reports that management needs for planning and control

Executive()information systems(EIS)
Information systems that provide information for executives to use in strategic planning

Decision support systems(DSS)


Support systems that allow a user to explore()the impact of available options[]or decisions

Communication support systems


Support systems that allow employees to communicate with each other and with customers and suppliers

Office support systems(OAS)


Support systems that help employees create and share documents, including reports, proposals, and memos Management information system
1_ 14 Huang Hong

REQUIRED SKILLS OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST


Technical knowledge and skills

fundamentals:
Computers and how they work Peripherals[] Communication networks that connect computers Databases and DBMS Programming languages Operating systems and utilities[]

Tools:software products used to help develop analysis and design


specifications[ ] and completed system components Software packages []used to develop systems Integrated development environments(IDEs) for specific programming languages Computer-aided system engineering[] tools Other tools
Management information system
1_ 15 Huang Hong

REQUIRED SKILLS OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST


Technical knowledge and skills(cont)

Techniques:strategies for completing specific system development


activities Project planning techniques System analysis techniques System design techniques System construction and implementation techniques System support techniques

Management information system

1_ 16

Huang Hong

REQUIRED SKILLS OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST Business knowledge and skills general
The activities and processes that organizations perform How are organizations structured How are organizations managed Type of work goes in organizations

Specific
What the specific organization does What makes it successful What its strategies and plans are What traditions and values are

Management information system

1_ 17

Huang Hong

REQUIRED SKILLS OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST

People knowledge and skills


How people think How people learn How people react to change How people communicate How people work(in a variety of jobs and levels)

Integrity[, , , ,] and ethics[, ;]


Private information about individuals Proprietary() information about products, strategic plans or tactics[, ] Top-secret information
E.g. visa card secret code

Management information system

1_ 18

Huang Hong

The environment surrounding the analyst


Types of technology encountered
Desktop systems Networked desktop systems that share data Client-server systems Large-scale centralized mainframe systems Systems using internet, intranet,

Job titles and places of employment


Programmer analyst Business systems analyst System liaison End-user analyst Business consultant Software engineer System architect
Management information system
1_ 19

Jobs in a Software enterprise

Huang Hong

Discussion
What should a common company personnel do when the company tries to introduce information systems to solve problems? Suppose you are a manager of an enterprise, and you want to recruit a person to develop and run your information systems, who will be your choice CS graduates or IM graduates

Management information system

1_ 20

Huang Hong

The analysts role in strategic planning


Strategic planning
A process which executives try to answer questions about the company such as where they are now, where they want to be, and what they have to do to get there.

Analysts play very important role in strategic planning, How might this happen?
Work for special project that affects executives.e.g. designing a EIS Business process reengineering
A technique or process that seeks to alter the nature of the work done in a business function with the objective of radically improving performance BPR often involve information system

Strategic planning processes


The nature of Strategic planning processes determines that analyst must participate in strategic planning.

Management information system

1_ 21

Huang Hong

The analysts role in strategic planning(cont)


Analysts play very important role in strategic planning, How might this happen(cont)
Information systems strategic planning
Information systems strategic plan is to define the technology and applications the information system needs to support the organizations strategic plan, it is a major component of the strategic plan Information system themselves often drive the strategic plan Information systems strategic plan include an application architecture plan and a technology architecture plan o application architecture plan: a description of the integrated information systems needed by the organization to carry out its business functions o technology architecture plan: a description of the hardware, software, and communications networks required to implement planned information systems

Management information system

1_ 22

Huang Hong

The analysts role in strategic planning(cont)


Enterprise resource planning(ERP)
A process in which an organization commits to using an integrated set of software packages for key information systems Complex and expensive, difficult to return to old ways Famous vendors: SAP, PeopleSoft

Management information system

1_ 23

Huang Hong

A strategic systems plan for rocky mountain outfitters


Overview of rocky mountain outfitters Organization and locations Information systems department organization Existing systems The information systems strategic plan
Technology architecture plan Application architecture plan Time frames for implementing application architecture plan

Management information system

1_ 24

Huang Hong

Two major new systems


Resulted from reengineering of RMOs business process

The Customer support system


Order entry Customer service/catalog Order tracking Shipping Back ordering Returns Sales analysis Vendor management Manufacturing requirements planning Normal volume ordering and reordering Emergency out-of-stock ordering Cost tracking Aging of inventory stock Turnover analysis Warehouse goods tracking
1_ 25 Huang Hong

The inventory management system

Management information system

The analyst as a system developer


System analysts main work is to work on a specific information system development project.

Management information system

1_ 26

Huang Hong

IT and Business
Realization Business automation support Promotion Business innovation

Finding requirements

improving system

developing system

Management information system

1_ 27

Huang Hong

Main points in this chapter


Understand the following concepts: Information system System analysis System design Systems analyst Subsystem Supersystem Functional decomposition System boundary Automation boundary Strategic planning Business process reengineering(BPR) ERP Why a systems analyst is a business problem solver and a system developer How does an analyst solve problems? What are his usual Work steps Types of information systems and their purpose Required Skills Of The System Analyst
Management information system
1_ 28 Huang Hong

Assignments
Key terms and review questions Thinking critically 1,9,10 If you are a CIS student, please do Page 26 experiential exercises no. 1,2 If you are not a CIS student, thinking critically :As a manager or an important personnel, what kind of knowledge and skills are needed in order to participate in the development and application processes of the information systems in your workplace. Find out as many as possible the commercial ERP packages and their vendors.

Management information system

1_ 29

Huang Hong