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Chemistry

7th Grade Science S. May

Element

Simplest form Cannot be broken down any farther by chemical or physical means Is contained in the periodic Contains one upper case letterEX Fe (Iron) Sulfurused for fertilizer Silverused for tableware Copperused for wiring Carbonused for ski wax (graphite)

Compound

2 or more elements chemically combined Contains 2 UPPERCASE letters EX H20 (water)

Atom

Smallest unit Cannot be visualized with naked eye

Chemical bondsforces that hold the atoms in compounds together

Atom

3 parts to an atom P Proton-contains a positive charge + E Electron-contains a negative charge N Neutron-contains no charge

Atomic number is the number of protons and electrons in an atom Found above the element symbol on the periodic table As you go left to right the number increases by one (1)

Protons and Neutrons are inside the nucleus Electronsshells, clouds orbits Shells 1st can only hold 2 e (electrons, negative charge) 2nd can only hold 8 e 3rd can only hold 18 e 4th can only hold 32 e

Formula for 5th shell on--2 n 2 (squared) where n is the shell number See example on the board 2 (5) 2 2 (25) 50 for the 5th shell And so on

Periodic Table of Elements

Organizes information about elements by properties Chemical Symbols are used to abbreviate the name of each element Arranged by groups because they have similar physical and chemical properties

Metals

Found to the left of the staircase Can transfer heat and electricity-called conductors Malleable-can be hammered into thin sheets Ductile-can be stretched into thin wire Metallic luster-shiny Opaque-cannot see through them At room temp are solids React when placed in acid Corrode if exposed to air/water

Nonmetals

Found to the right of the table Some are solid, some are gas, some are liquid Poor conductors of heat and electricity Usually brittle Break apart easily and cannot be hammered into thin sheets or wires Can be transparent

Periodic Table

18 groups There are 7 periods The periods are down the sides and go across horizontally See example on the board

4 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

Solid Particles are packed closely together Definite shape Definite volume

Liquid Particles slide past each other No definite shape No definite volume

Gas Particles are moving all over the place No definite shape No definite volume Rise up

Plasma Found only in high temperatures EXTREMELY high temperatures-lightning, etc.

Atomic Number

Tells the number of protons and electrons in an element EX Oxygen Atomic Number 8 P (+) are 8 E (-) are 8

Atomic Mass

The weight of an element (protons + neutrons) Neutrons = the atomic mass atomic number Oxygen as example: 15.999 (atomic mass) 8 (atomic #) = 7.999 Round to the nearest whole number 8

Oxygen P=8 E=8 N=8 Show example of shell

Group I

Alkali metals First vertical column to the left Most reactive metals 1 electron in the outer most shell Exposed to water will explode Soft metals Can be cut with a knife Good heat/electricity conductors Sodium

Group II-alkaline earth family

Group II Oxidation # 2+ Oxidation tells how many electrons an element will gain or lose during bonding Very reactive metals Harder than group I Alkaline metals Magnesium

Group 3-12 Transition metals Less reactive More brittle Good conductors

Groups 14 Metalloid Graphite Diamonds Do not reflect light

Group 15 Do not reflect light

Group 16 Do not reflect light 6 electrons in the outer shell

Halogens Group 17

Group 17 7 electrons in the outer shell Most reactive non metals Halogens or salt formers

Group 18-noble or inert gases

Group 18 Most stable elements Least reactive of all Gas at room temperature Noble or inert gases-it is rare for them to form a bond with other elements Odorless Silent killers

Metalloids

Between the non metals and metals Have some properties of both metals and nonmetals

Ions Electrically charged particles or atoms EX; Na+ (sodium), Cl- (chlorine), Mg2+ (magnesium)

Ionic Bonding

Transfer of electrons between a metal and non metal Element that loses the electron becomes positively charged The element that gains the electron becomes negatively charged Due to opposing charges-the electrostatic force holds them together

Dissolves easily in water Conducts electricity in solutions Forms into crystals at the melting point or temperature

Table SaltNaCl Sodium is a non metal the electron is transferred to the chlorine CaCl-calcium chloride Used in medications, soil solidification, dye retention and controls ice and snow MgO-magnesium oxide Used as a food component and in fiberglass and steel KBr-potassium bromide Used by vets for medications for animals

Isotope More neutrons than protons in the nucleus Ex (Cl) atomic #17 atomic mass 35.453 P = 17 E = 17 N = 18 Show example of how to find neutrons

Ionic bond-bond formed by gaining or losing electrons Ex; NaCl (table salt) Show example

Covalent bonds Sharing of electrons Ex H20 Show example

Molecule-neutral particles that form from sharing electrons Metallic Bonds-form from sharing of pooled electronsresponsible for the characteristics of metal Pooled electrons- moves freely about cell electrons in outer shell

Static Electricity
Electrons are contained in the outer shells When objects are rubbed together, the electrons may be transferred If the objects are insulators and good conductors, the electrons are moved from one to the other

You can make a balloon stick to the wall by rubbing the balloon on your hair Your hair gives up the electrons and the balloon receives the electrons and has a negative charge

When you take off your hat, it rubs against your hair Electrons move from your hair to the hat A static charge builds up Things that have the same charges, repel away from each other So the hairs try and get as far away from each other as possible They stand away from each other on their ends

As you walk across your carpet, electrons are transferring from the rug to you You touch the door knob and zaaappp The door knob is a conductor The electrons jump from you to the door knob