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CHAPTER I

BASIC CONCEPTS

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What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic machine that makes mathematical calculation and logical comparison.

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What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic machine for computing and counting.

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What to do a computer?
A computer can get in data as an input, process them and then store in memory or display the result of the processing as an output.

INPUT 3 and 4

PROCESSING 3+ 4

OUTPUT 7

STORE IN MEMORY
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Computer Properties
Computers can process very fast. Computers dont make mistake except user and hardware errors. Computers dont forget.

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COMPUTER SYSTEM

HARDWARE
Monitor Keyboard Hard disk Compact disc Mouse

SOFTWARE
MS Windows XP MS Word Games PhotoShop Paint NotePad

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HARDWARE
Any mechanical and electronic parts of a computer that can be seen and touched

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SOFTWARE
Software is the programs that tell the computer what to do and how to do.

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TYPES of The COMPUTERS

Supercomputers Mainframes Minicomputers Microcomputers

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SUPERCOMPUTERS
A Supercomputer is the most powerful, fastest and biggest computer. They are used for scientific research.

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SUPERCOMPUTERS

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SUPERCOMPUTERS

SUPERCOMPUTERS
June 6, 2003 Weather and climate supercomputer is dedicated to bringing the nation faster and more exact weather and climate predictions. It can make more than 450 billion calculations per second. It is the new generation IBM supercomputer which is using to improve local and national forecast accuracy, as well as extend watch and warning lead times for potential severe weather such as winter storms, tornadoes, floods and hurricanes in USA.
More than two million atmospheric and oceanic observations collected from the ground, air, sea and space are used by the supercomputer each day. From these observations, the models predict changes, which could occur in the atmosphere and the resulting weather. Crucial guidance is provided under strict time tables and enables forecasters to predict events such as hurricanes, floods, severe weather and winter storms days in UNA SANA COLLEGE advance.

SUPERCOMPUTERS

PROJECT COLUMBIA Nasa powers up with supercomputer August 06, 2004 US space agency Nasa is to get a massive supercomputing boost to help get its shuttle missions back in action after the 2003 shuttle disaster. It is the one of the world's biggest Linux-based supercomputers. The new supercomputer will help the agency model flight missions, climate research, and aerospace engineering. The system will have 500 terabytes of storage, the equivalent of 800,000 CDs. It will use the might of 10,240 Intel Itanium 2 processors for complex computer simulations.
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MAINFRAMES
A mainframe computer is a very big, powerful and expensive computer that is used by very large companies.

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MAINFRAMES
What is the use of the mainframes? While its use is limited, a mainframe server can be used as a file server for a very large organization (this usually means the government or government contracted organizations). Large companies, universities and research organizations also use mainframes for various projects. Cancer researchers use sets (group) of IBM servers to perform linear algebra and other mathematical operations needed to complete research. On the fun side, Sun Microsystems is now leasing their enterprise servers to certain groups such as animators and graphics producers to perform rendering.

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MINICOMPUTERS
A minicomputer is big, powerful and expensive computer that is used by medium-sized companies.

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MICROCOMPUTERS
Microcomputer is also called PC (Personal Computer). It is a computer which can be used only by one person at a time.

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According to the manufacturer


we can categorizes micro computers into two groups:

1.

IBM PC or IBM compatible PC

2 . Apple Macintosh

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According to Shapes
we can categorizes micro computers into three groups:

1. Desktop PC

2. Laptop or Notebook PC

3. PDA or palmtop or pocket or tablet PC.

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