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Wind Turbines
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Different types of wind turbines


• Drag-type turbines
– Persian windmill
– Chinese wind wheel
– Saviounus
• Lift-type turbines
– VAWT, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
• Darrieus
– HAWT, Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
• The Danish concept
• American multiblade
• Grumman windstream
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Drag-type turbines

Savonious

The Persian windmill

The Chinese wind wheel


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Drag-type turbines

Ref: www.ifb.uni-stuttgart.de/~doerner/edesignphil.html
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Lift-type turbines
VAWT, Darrieus
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Lift-type turbines
VAWT, Darrieus
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Ref: www.ifb.uni-stuttgart.de/~doerner/edesignphil.html
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Lift-type turbines
HAWT, American Multiblade
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Lift-type turbines
HAWT, Grumman Windstream
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Lift-type turbines
HAWT, The Danish Concept
• The blades upwind the rotor
• Constant speed on the rotor
• Power output limitation
– Stall control
• Brakes
– Mechanical
– Aerodynamic
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Development of HAWT
HEIGHT [M]

SPEED n 20 17 13 5 – 15 3 – 10 rpm
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Wind power and energy


A
• Power output from
wind turbines:
c3
Power = ρ ⋅ ⋅ A ⋅η C
2
• Energy production
from wind turbines:
Energy  Power Time
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Energy flux for wind turbines


3
c
P = ρ ⋅ ⋅ A ⋅η
2
Where:
P = Power [W]
ρ = Density [kg/m3]
c = Velocity [m/s]
A = Area [m2]
η = Efficiency [-]

Recommended literature: Wind Turbine Technology,


David A. Spera,
ISBN no. 0-7918-1205-7
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The world’s energy potential for land based wind turbines

Estimated energy output in kWh/kW from a wind turbine that are dimensioned for 11 m/s
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Global Installed wind power


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Installed wind power

Source: www.gwec.net
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Wind power capacity global forecast


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Wind Power in Norway
per 1st January 2006
• Energy goal for 2010: 3 TWh

• Wind farms in operation:


– Number of wind farms: 13
– Number of wind mills: 165
– Installed power: ca. 320 MW
– Energy production: ca. 900 GWh

• Planned wind farms (License is given, but not built)


– Number of wind farms: 15
– Number of wind mills: 439
– Installed power: 1214 MW
– Energy production: 3866 GWh

• Planned wind farms (Applied for License)


– Number of wind farms: 36
– Number of wind mills: 1444
– Installed power: 4496 MW
Hitra
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Norwegian wind farms in operation
Installert Energi
Effekt Produksjon Antall
NAVN TILTAKSHAVER FYLKE KOMMUNE MW [GWh] Turbiner

FJELDSKÅR AGDER ENERGI NETT AS VEST-AGDER LINDESNES 4 5 12

GARTEFJELLET STATKRAFT ENERGI AS FINNMARK LEBESBY 40 120 20


MØRE OG
HARØY SANDØY VINDKRAFT A/S ROMSDAL SANDØY 3,75 11 5

HAVØYGAVLEN ARCTIC WIND AS FINNMARK MÅSØY 40 120 16

HITRA (ELDSFJELLET) HITRA VIND AS SØR-TRØNDELAG HITRA 55 150 24


NORD-TRØNDELAG NORD-
HUNDHAMMERFJELLET-1 ELEKTRISITETSVERK FKF TRØNDELAG NÆRØY 2 ? 1
NORD-TRØNDELAG NORD-
HUNDHAMMERFJELLET-2 ELEKTRISITETSVERK FKF TRØNDELAG NÆRØY 3 ? 1
SOGN OG
MEHUKEN I KVALHEIM KRAFT AS FJORDAN VÅGSØY 4,25 13 5

NYGÅRDSFJELLET NARVIK ENERGI AS NORDLAND NARVIK 7 21 3


NORSK MILJØKRAFT
SANDHAUGEN TROMSØ AS TROMS TROMSØ 9 20 3
MØRE OG
SMØLA STATKRAFT ENERGI AS ROMSDAL SMØLA 150 450 68
NORSK HYDRO
PRODUKSJON AS
UTSIRA VIND- OG HYDROGENANLEGG ROGALAND UTSIRA 1 5 2
NORD-TRØNDELAG NORD-
VIKNA HUSFJELLET ELEKTRISITETSVERK FKF TRØNDELAG VIKNA 2,2 6 5

Ref. www.nve.no 321,2 921 165


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Norwegian wind farms
License is given, but not built
Installert Energi
Effekt Produksjon Antall
NAVN TILTAKSHAVER FYLKE KOMMUNE MW [GWh] Turbiner

ANDMYRAN ANDMYRAN VINDPARK AS NORDLAND ANDØY 160 620 64


TRØNDERENERGI KRAFT
BESSAKERFJELLET AS SØR-TRØNDELAG ROAN 57 150 25
TROMS KRAFT
FAKKEN PRODUKSJON AS TROMS KARLSØY 60 200 17
NORSK HYDRO
HARBAKSFJELLET PRODUKSJON AS SØR-TRØNDELAG ÅFJORD 90 200 33
NORD-TRØNDELAG NORD-
HUNDHAMMERFJELLET-3 ELEKTRISITETSVERK FKF TRØNDELAG NÆRØY 51 160 15

HØG-JÆREN JÆREN ENERGI AS ROGALAND TIME OG HÅ 80 260 27


NORSK HYDRO
KARMØY (OFFSHORE) PRODUKSJON AS ROGALAND KARMØY 3 ? 1
NORSK MILJØKRAFT
KVITFJELL TROMSØ AS TROMS TROMSØ 200 660 80
NORSK MILJØ ENERGI
LISTA SØR AS VEST-AGDER FARSUND 102 280 31

NYGÅRDSFJELLET - TRINN 2 NORDKRAFT VIND AS NORDLAND NARVIK 40 120 11

SKALLHALSEN STATKRAFT ENERGI AS FINNMARK VADSØ 65 190 16

TYSVÆR TYSVÆR VINDPARK AS ROGALAND TYSVÆR 39 110 13


TRØNDERENERGI KRAFT
VALSNESET AS SØR-TRØNDELAG BJUGN 12 30 4

VALSNESET TESTSTASJON VIVA AS SØR-TRØNDELAG BJUGN 6 16 3


NORD-TRØNDELAG NORD-
YTRE VIKNA ELEKTRISITETSVERK FKF TRØNDELAG VIKNA 249 870 99

Ref. www.nve.no 1 214 3 866 439


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HAWT
Horisontal-Axis Wind Turbines

SMØLA
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HAWT
Main Components
• Foundation
• Tower
• Nacelle
• Hub
• Turbine blades

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Towers
Lattice tower Tubular steel towers,

Guyed Pole Tower

Concrete tower
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Tower designs

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Nacelle and Yaw system

Ref. www.windpower.org
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Yaw system

Ref. www.windpower.org
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Nacelle
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Nacelle
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Nacelle Design

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Nacelle Drive Trains

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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VESTAS V90
3 MW
108 TONS
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Multibrid M5000
Power output: 5 MW
Diameter: 116 m.
Turbine speed: 5,9 -14,8 rpm

Masses:
Blade: 16.500 kg
Hub: 60.100 kg
Nacelle: 199.300 kg
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(tons)
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Hydraulic transmission - 5 MW
P = Hydraulic pump (Assumed weight 20 ton)
M = Variable displacement motor 8 x A4VSO1000
G = Generator placed at the bottom of the wind turbine

P Weights in ton

M G
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Hub design
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Hub design

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Hub design

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Blade Design

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Design at different TSR

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Energy Flux in the wind

3
c
P = ρ ⋅ ⋅ Area
2
Where:
P = Power [W]
ρ = Density [kg/m3]
c = Velocity [m/s]
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Wind velocity, power and energy


1000

900

800

700
c3
Power = ρ ⋅ ⋅ A ⋅η
Time [h/year]

600

500
2
400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Velocity [m/s]

600

500

Energy = Power ⋅ Time


Energy [kWh/m ]

400
2

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Velocity [m/s]
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Power output
10 000
Wind Power
9 000

8 000

7 000
Turbine Power
Power [kW]

6 000

5 000

4 000

3 000

2 000

1 000

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind Speed [m/s]
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Aerodynamic brakes

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Stall control

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Turbine blade pitch system

Ref. Wind Power Plants, R.Gasch, J.Twele


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Turbine blade pitch system


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Links
• www.windpower.org/
• www.ewea.org
• www.nve.no
• www.hydro.com/no/our_business/oil_energy/new_energy/w
• www.statkraft.no/pub/vindkraft/index.asp
• www.gwec.net
• http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/nn/nn_rt/nn_rt_wind
/article_1101_en.htm
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Recommended literature

• Wind Power Plants, Fundamentals, Design Construction and Operation


– R. gasch, J. Twele, ISBN no. 1-902916-38-7
• Wind Turbine Technology
– David A. Spera, ISBN no. 0-7918-1205-7
• Guidelines for design of Wind Turbines
– DNV, RISØ, ISBN no. 87-550-2870-5
• Wind Energy Handbook
– T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, E. Bossanyi, ISBN no. 0-471-48997-2
• Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines
– Martin O. L. Hansen, ISBN no. 1-902916-06-9