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Chapter 17: Springs

Entia non multiplicantor sunt prater necessitatum. (Do not complicate matters more than necessary.) Galileo Gallilei

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Cycle

Figure 17.1 Stress-strain curve for one loading cycle.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spring Materials

Table 17.1 Typical properties of common spring materials. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strength of Spring Materials

Table 17.2 Coefficients used in Equation (17.2) for five spring materials.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Coil

Figure 17.2 Helical coil. (a) Straight wire before coiling; (b) coiled wire showing transverse (or direct) shear; (c) coiled wire showing torsional shear. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shear Stresses on Wire and Coil

Figure 17.3 Shear stresses acting on wire and coil. (a) Pure torsional loading; (b) transverse loading; (c) torsional and transverse loading with no curvature effects; (d) torsional and transverse loading with curvature effects.
Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Compression Spring End Types

Figure 17.4 Four end types commonly used in compression springs. (a) Plain; (b) plain and ground; (c) squared; (d) squared and ground. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Compression Spring Formulas

Table 17.3 Useful formulas for compression springs with four end conditions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Lengths and Forces in Helical Springs

Figure 17.5 Various lengths and forces applicable to helical compression springs. (a) Unloaded; (b) under initial load; (c) under solid load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Force vs. Deflection

Figure 17.6 Graphical representation of deflection, force and length for four spring positions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Buckling Conditions

Figure 17.7 Critical buckling conditions for parallel and nonparallel ends of compression springs. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Extension Spring Ends

Figure 17.8 Ends for extension springs. (a) Conventional design; (b) Side view of Fig. 17.8(a); (c) improved design; (d) side view of Fig. 17.8(c).

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Extension Springs

Figure 17.9 Dimensions of helical extension spring.

Figure 17.10 Preferred range of preload stress for various spring indexes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Torsion Spring

Figure 17.11 Helical torsion spring.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Leaf Spring

Figure 17.12 Leaf spring. (a) Triangular plate, cantilever spring; (b) equivalent multiple-leaf spring. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Belleville Springs

Figure 17.13 Typical Belleville Spring.

Figure 17.14 Force-deflection response of Belleville spring.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stacking of Belleville Springs

Figure 17.15 Stacking of Belleville springs. (a) in parallel; (b) in series.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Dickerman Feed Case Study

Figure 17.16 Dickerman feed unit.


Figure 17.17 Performance of the spring in the case study. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements