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SPONTANEOUS OCCURANCE OF A PROCESS: 1st Law of Thermodynamics holds when a system undergoes a change of state or a thermodynamic process during energy interaction. But, it does not guarantee whether that change of state or the process in certain direction is feasible or not, if feasible, to what extent. It is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics which provides the criterion as to the probability of various processes in certain direction. Nature shows that there exists a certain direction for every process involving work and heat. For example: - a hot cup of coffee cools with time; it does not spontaneously heat. - a ball rolls down a hill; it does not spontaneously return to the top. - gasoline drives an engine up a hill, the gasoline tank does not get back to its full when it returns back down the hill. Thus, there is a preferred direction in all natural actions involving heat, work and energy.

E Process law 1 2

Process law

The driving forces like temperature gradient, gravitational potential gradient, chemical potential gradient, concentration gradient, and electrical potential gradient cause respectively the heat to flow, mass to flow/diffuse and electrical current to flow, from higher potential to lower potential, and not from lower to higher. This directional law puts a limitation on energy transformation, which is not taken care of by the 1st law of thermodynamics. WORK AND HEAT HAVE RELATIVE VALUE: In the Joules experiments when the system was supplied with work, it completely got converted into heat, but in the reverse manner, the complete conversion heat into work in a cycle was not possible; some heat was required to be rejected to complete the cycle, ie. When Work was converted into Heat: Winput = Qoutput (i) When Heat was converted into Work: Qinput Woutput (ii)

W1-2 1

Q1-2 1

3 W2-3

W1-2 h

Q2-1 2 Fig.1a W1-2 = Q2-1 Complete conversion of work into heat






Q1-2 W2-1 Hence, some heat is required to be rejected from the system during the process 2-1.

Hence, Heat and Work are not completely interchangeable forms of energy. Whereas work can completely be converted into heat (fig. 1a), Heat can not be converted completely and continuously into work in a cycle (fig.1b), and hence, some heat is required to be rejected from the system in the process 2-1 (fig.1b) to complete the cycle. That is why work is said to a high grade energy and heat a low grade. The complete conversion of low grade energy into high grade energy in a cycle is impossible. Hence, work is more valuable than heat.

Heat Engines producing a Net Work in a cycle and Rejecting some heat into the surroundings Q1 WT WE WC Q1 Q2 Wp Fig. 1b HEAT ENGINE (Closed steady flow system) Q1=Heat addition into the system WT= Work done by the system Wp= Work done on the system Q2= Heat rejection into the sink (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Fig. 1a HEAT ENGINE (Closed non-flow system undergoing 4 processes) Q1=Heat addition into the system WE= Work done by the system Wc= Work done on the system Q2= Heat rejection into the sink

Net Heat Transfer into the Systems = Q = Q1 Q2; in a cycle Net Work done by the Systems = W = WT Wp= WE - Wc; in a cycle First law of Thermodynamics: Q = W; in a cycle Q1 Q2 = WT Wp Thermal Efficiency = th = Wnet/Q1 = W/Q1 = (WT Wp)/Q1 = (Q1 Q2)/Q1 = 1 Q2/Q1


THERMAL RESERVOIR: It is a heat source or heat sink that remains at almost constant temperature, regardless of how much heat is added to or removed from the reservoir.

Nature shows that the system must be at a temperature lower than that of heat source and higher than that of heat sink.
In general, heat sources and heat sinks are not necessarily thermal reservoirs. Heat source (or Sink) is described as finite if its temperature changes when heat is extracted from it (or added to it).

HEAT ENGINES: Heat engine is a device that can operate continuously to produce work while receiving heat (Qh) from a high temperature source at Th and rejecting heat (Ql) to a low temperature sink at Tl. The 1st law efficiency (also called Thermal efficiency): th = (Desired O/P)/ (Required I/P) = Wnet / Qh = (Qh -Ql) / Qh (i)
Closed system boundary Th Qh
Boiler/ combuster

Th Qh system Ql Tl A nonflow reciprocating/circulating multi component heat engine W Pump/ compressor

Turbine steam/gas


Condenser/ HE
Ql Tl

Reversed Heat Engine (Refrigerator/Heat Pump): It is a device that receives heat from a low temperature reservoir (source) and rejects heat to a high temperature reservoir (sink). When the device is used for cooling a source, it is referred to as Refrigerator or air conditioner, and when it is used for heating the sink (or for both heating and cooling), it is often called heat pump. The 1st law efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump is called the coefficient of performance (COP). COPR = Ql/W = Ql/(Qh-Ql) (i) COPH = Qh/W = Qh/(Qh - Ql) (ii) COPH = COPR + 1 (iii) Sink atTh Qh Th Qh system W Expansion valve compressor Evaporator Closed system boundary Ql Source atTl Condenser




Aristotle (384-322 BC) developed the concept and laid to the foundation for the above logics which the scientist and engineers use. The inductive logic is a process of reasoning from particular to the general, from a part to a whole, from individual cases to universal truth; the Deductive logic entails reasoning from the general to a particular, from the universal to the individual, or from a given premise to the necessary conclusion. Basically Inductive logic is used to formulate some general statement concerning Natural Behavior based on experimental evidence and observations, the Deductive Logic can be used to establish a corollary of a general law The 2nd law of thermodynamics was arrived at by the Inductive logic, the Deductive logic was used to reach a no. of Important conclusions- called the corollaries- the consequences of the general law.


Two classical statements of the 2nd law arrived at by use of inductive logic based on experimental evidence and observations: Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a device that will operate in a cycle and produce a net work while exchanging heat with a single thermal reservoir (source or sink); ie. It is impossible to construct a device that will continuously convert heat totally into work without any rejection of heat into the sink. (fig.a)
TH Th Qh W HE Impossible device-HE Fig. a Fig. b Ql Tl Impossible Refrigerator Ql

Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produce no other effect than transferring heat from low temperature to high temperature body. (Fig.b) While Kelvin-Planck statement has relevance to a heat engine the Clausius statement is related to a reversed heat engine ie a refrigerator/heat pump.


The two statements are equivalent. We could use either statement as the primary statement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics and then establish the other as a corollary of the primary one. A method known as reductio ad absurdum is often used to prove the corollary. In this method, the contrary of the proposition is assumed to be true. If one can then show that the assumption contradicts the primary law, the assumption becomes absurd and is then discarded. The original proposition therefore stands.


Let consider that the contrary to the Kelvin-Planck statement (a corollary here, the Clausius statement being the primary one) is true; ie. It is possible to have a device which can produce a net work operating in a cycle and exchanging heat with a single reservoir. Then the work output of the device (HE) can be used to drive the HP. This HP can extract heat from low temp. reservoir and throw into the high temp. reservoir. The fig(b) shows violation of the Clausius statement(the primary statement here).
Th Th


Qh + Ql





Ql Ql Tl Fig.a Tl Fig.b

VOILATING CLAUSIUS STATEMENT: Let us assume the contrary to the Clausius statement is true. Hence, the Clausius statement becomes a corollary to the primary KelvinPlanck statement. Then, it is possible to have a device operating in a cycle whose sole effect could be transferring heat from a low temp. reservoir to the high temp. reservoir. In the combined system the reservoir (Th) may be eliminated and the heat (Ql) discharged by HP can directly be delivered into the HE.


Ql W=Ql-Ql W=Ql-Ql

HP Ql Tl


Ql-Ql Tl


A perpetual motion machine of the 2nd kind is a device that can produce net work continuously (ie. perpetually) while exchanging heat with a single reservoir. That is, the device can produce 100% of work without any rejection into a low temp. reservoir . This engine is said to produce a limitless quantity of work taking heat from the environment. Such a device is a clear violation of the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is impossible proposition.

2nd law has revealed that no device can produce 100% net work in a cycle out of certain heat input. The formal statement did not say as to how much of the heat input could be converted to work. The device that gives the maximum output is an ideal device. An ideal device is the one in which all processes for the device and for the surroundings are reversible. A thermodynamic process is said to be reversible if at any time during the process, both the system and the surroundings can be returned to their initial states without any change to the system as well as the surroundings. We have come across internally, externally, and totally reversible processes. These have been possible when there were no dissipative effect of any kind in the process. The necessary conditions for a reversible process are the same as those for the quasi-equilibrium process i.e very slow process. In addition, the interactions across the system boundary must occur with infinitesimally small differences between the relevant system properties and those for the surroundings. Devices are not built to operate at slow rates, neither interactions across the system boundary occur with infinitesimal difference between the pertinent system properties and those for the surroundings. However, the reversible(ideal) is considered to determine the maximum possible efficiency that can be obtained. The concept of reversibility is a powerful one that allows an upper limit for the efficiency of performance of heat engines and refrigerators. Such concept allowed Sadi Carnot to develop the Carnot cycle.

Carnot cycle is a hypothetical cycle for either a heat engine or a refrigerator. All processes in this are reversible, hence the cycle gives maximum possible efficiency either for HE or reversed HE.
Rev. adiabatics 1 Qh 2 Wc Wt 4 Wt Wc Ql 3 v

Thermodynamic processes (Carnot engine) (process 1-2-3-4-1) Rev. isotherm(t1) 1-2= rev. isothermal heat addition to the system 2-3= rev. adiabatic (isentropic) expansion 3-4= rev. isothermal heat rejection from the sys. Rev. isotherm(t2) 4-1= rev. adiabatic (isentropic) compression (system here = working fluid) Thermodynamic processes(Reversed Carnot Engine) (process 1-4-3-2-1) 1-4= rev. adiabatic (isentropic)expansion 4-3= rev. isothermal heat addition to the system 3-2= rev. adiabatic(isentropic) compression 2-1= rev. isothermal heat rejection from the sys. (system here = working fluid)

= Engine process =Refrigerator/Heat pump process


Corollary I & II = concern with the characteristics of reversible heat engine as well reversible reversed heat engines (Carnot engines)operating between two reservoirs. Corollary III: thermodynamic temperature scale Corollary IV: Clausius inequality relevant to engines operating between a series of reservoirs. Corollary V: Concept of Entropy a derived property of the 2nd law. Corollary I: No cyclic heat engine can be constructed to operate between only two heat reservoirs with efficiency higher than that of reversible heat engine operating between the same two reservoirs.
Th Qh W1 I1 Qh W2 I2 Tl Qh WR


Corollary II: All reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs have the same efficiency whatever may be (i)the no. of processes (ii) sequence of the processes (iii) type of the processes (iv) nature of the working fluid. If this is the case, the efficiency shall depend only on the temperatures of the thermal reservoirs (Th & /Tl).

Th Qh WR1 R1 Ql Qh WR2 R2 Ql Tl Qh WR3 R3 Ql

Corollay III: A temperature scale can be defined that is independent of the properties of the substance used for measurement of temperature. The fact of the corollary II allows to establish an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale that is independent of the properties of the substance used for the measurement of temperature and is based only on the characteristics of reversible heat engines and constant temperature reservoirs..

Thermal efficiency(R1):()R1=1Ql/Qh =f(Tl,Th)

Th Qh WR1 R1 Qh WR2 R2




Engines R2 and R3,can be considered as equivalent to a single reversible engine operating b/w Th and Tl since Qm can be taken directly into R3. ()R2 =1Qm/Qh= f(Tm,Th) (ii) ()R3 = 1 Ql/Qm = f(Tl,Tm) (iii)

R3 WR3

Ql Tl


The above functional relations can be expressed as Ql/Qh = (Tl,Th) Qm/Qh = (Tm,Th) Ql/Qm = (Tl,Tm) Now, since Ql/Qh = (Qm/Qh).(Ql/Qm) (Tl,Th) = (Tm,Th). (Tl,Tm)

(iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii)

Since the intermediate temp. Tm was arbitrarily chosen and does not appear on LHS, it must cancel on the RHS. The functional relationship can be expressed in simple form as Qm/Qh = (Tm,Th) = (Tm)/(Th) (ix) Ql/Qm = (Tl,Tm) = (Tl)/(Tm) (x) Hence, eq. (vii) can be expressed as Ql/Qh = (Tm)/(Th). (Tl)/(Tm) = (Tl)/(Th) = Tl/Th (xi) This choice of a linear function by Lord Kevin was because of the similarity with the ideal gas linear behavior.

Ql/Qh = Tl/Th
Qh/Ql = Th/Tl

Th Qh R1 Ql Tl WR1

Qh/Th = Ql/Tl


If a reversible heat engine is operated b/w a reservoir at the triple point of water and another reservoir at any temp. T, then T can be determined by Q/T = Qt/Tt (xiii) T = (273.16/Qt) Q (xiv) where, Qt = a finite heat exchanged with the heat reservoir at 273.16 K.

Note: as T approaches zero, Q approaches zero. In other words, a heat engine operating b/w Tt and T=0 would produce a net work while rejecting zero heat to the low temp. reservoir at T = 0. And such device is impossible according to KelvinPlack statement. The conclusion is thus: it not possible to reach absolute zero temperature by any system or device.
Th=Tt=273.16K Qt R1 WR1 Q=0 T=0 Violation of Kelvin- Planck statement

Corollary IV: (Clausius Theorem also called Clausius Equality, and the concept of Entropy) cycle(Q/T)R = 0, Clausius therem (i) (Q/T)R = dS (ii) Prerequisite: let there be an arbitrary reversible process (i-f). It can be replaced by two nos. reversible adiabatic and one no. rev. isothermal process. Qi-f
W Q T i i f f Q W P i a Qa-b b f V Position of the isotherm selected so that Wi-f = Wi-a-b-f

What process? i Any type f Any no. Any sequence

1st law to the process (i-f): Qi-f - Wi-f = = (Uf Ui) (i) 1st law to the process (i-a-b-f): Qi-a-b-f Wi-a-b-f = (Uf Ui) (ii) Eq. (i) and (ii): Qi-f - Wi-f = Qi-a-b-f Wi-a-b-f Qi-f = Qi-a-b-f (iii) Refer the fig. Qi-a = Qb-f = 0; adiabatic process (iv) Eq. (iii) becomes: Qi-f = Qa-b (v) Hence, heat interaction in any arbitrary rev. process Qi-f can be replaced by heat interaction through only the rev. isothermal process Qa-b, vide the figure. This made the analysis simple.

Let us consider an arbitrary closed reversible cycle for deriving the Clausius theorem. Divide it by a no. of reversible adiabatics closing at the top and bottom by reversible isotherms as shown in the fig. The original cycle is thus replaced by a zigzag toothed closed path consisting of element Carnot cycles.
Rev. isotherms P dQ3 e f T3 dQ1 T1a b T2 d dQ2 c g T4 V Rev. adiabatics

For the carnot cycle a-b-c-d: Q1/T1 = Q2/T2; corollary II (ii) Considering the sign convention, Q1/T1 + Q2/T2 = 0 (iii) For the Carnot cycle e-f-g-e: Q3/T3 + Q4/T4 = 0 (iv) Adding all such eqs. Developed from each Carnot cycle, Q1/T1 + Q2/T2 + Q3/T3 + Q4/T4 = 0


cycle (Q/T)R = 0


Thus, cyclic integral of Q/T for a reversible cycle is equal to Zero. This is known as the Clausius theorem.

Concept of entropy as property: From eq. (v), the cyclic integral of a differential is zero. This happens only with a physical quantity which is a property ie the cyclic integral of a differential change of a physical quantity is zero only if that physical quantity is a property. Let us call that physical quantity the entropy. Hence, in the differential form, (Q/T)R = ds (vi) 12 Q/T = 12 dS = S = (Sf - Si) (vii) Unit mass basis: q/T = ds (viii)


In Transport

0 (Q/T)R


S transported I f (Q/T)R dS S Q S f i T i

S+dS f

f i

V=C P=C T =C

The infinitesimal change in entropy dS due to reversible heat transfer Q at temperature T is dS = (Q)R /T. (i) For rev. adiabatic process, (Q)R = 0 dS = 0 S = constant. Reversible adiabatic process is therefore called isentropic process. Now, (Q)R = T dS

f if (Q)R = Q = if T dS (ii) f Q = i TdS S=C * if T = C, Q = if T dS = T (Sf-Si) (iii) S This means if a system changes from i to f with Q heat transfer in reversible manner, this quantity of heat transfer can be determined by integrating the property (S) change with temperature. ie. the area under the curve if T dS gives the total heat transfer(reversible) in the process.


W Q Let us consider the cycle (a-b-c- D). Case (i) the process (a-b) is reversible, hence, the complete cycle is reversible . Hence, R =1- (Q2/Q )R (i) Case (ii): the process (a-b) is irreversible, hence, the complete cycle is irreversible. Therefor, i = 1 - (Q2/Q )I (ii)




(Isotherms-Rev. or, Irrev.) Now, R I Rev. adiabatics 1- (Q2/Q )R 1 - (Q2/Q )I Q T a - (Q2/Q )R - (Q2/Q )I A b (Q2/Q )R < (Q2/Q)I B T2/T < (Q2/Q)I Q/T < Q2/T2 Q/T < dS D c dS Q/T; Irreversible process(a-b) C T2


Q2 Rev. isotherm

If the process (a-b) is reversible, dS = (Q)R/T; Reversible process(a-b) For any process (A-B): dS = or (Q)/T 1 2dS = (S2 S1) = or 1 2 (Q)/T

(b) (iii) (iv)

cycle (Q)/T = or, < cycle dS = 0 (=) : refers to reversible process of heat transfer (, <) : refers to irreversible process of heat transfer


This eq. is called the Clausius Inequality and provides criterion of the reversibility of a cycle.
If cycle (Q)/T = 0; the cycle is reversible If cycle (Q)/T < 0 ; the cycle is irreversible and possible (va) (vb)

If cycle (Q)/T 0 ; the cycle is not possible because, it violates 2nd law (vc)

For an infinitesimal process undergone by a system: dS , or = Q/T (i) W dme Isolated system: Q = 0 dSiso , or = 0 (ii) Q dSsys + dSsurr , or = 0 (iii) It is seen that the entropy of an isolated dmi system system can never decrease. It always increases or, remains constant when the processes inside the composite system are reversible. surroudings dSiso Entropy may decrease locally at some region Siso in the isolated system, but it must be compensated by a greater increase of entropy ISOLATED (COMPOSITE) SYSTEM somewhere within the system so that the net effect of an irreversible process is an entropy increase of the whole system. The entropy increase of an isolated system is a measure of the irreversibility generated inside the composite system.


Note: the entropy of an isolated system always increases and becomes a maximum at the state of equilibrium at some value of the parameter x. The system is said to at its Siso peak of the entropy hill, where, dSiso/dx = 0 (iv) Smax
Equilibrium state Xe Some parameter x

APPLICATIONS of the Entropy Principle: Every irreversible process is accompanied by entropy increase of the Universe and this entropy increase quantifies the extent of irreversibility of the process.

Entropy In Transport 0 W (Q)R/T Q (Q)R/T S T i dS f Q

S i

S+dS f

W SRB: entropy rate balance SB: entropy balance SDB: entropy differential balance

CLOSED SYSTEM: SDB: dS=(Q)R/T +d(Sgen ); Irrev. Heat transfer d(Sgen ) = 0; Rev. heat transfer SB: S = (Sf - Si) = if (Q)R/T + Sgen SRB: dS/dt = ((Q)R/T)/dt + d(Sgen)/dt Unit mass basis: sdb: ds = (q)R/T + d(sgen ) sb: s = ifqR/T + sgen srb: ds/dt = (q/T)R/dt + d(sgen)/dt

(iv) (v)

(v) (vi) (vii)

Entropy in Transport 0 (Q R/T) /dt

W Q/dt



(dme/dt) se )

(dmi /dt)si )

SRB: (QR/T)/dt + dmi/dt. si (dme/dt) se + d(Sgen)/dt = dS/dt SDB: (Q)R/T + d(mi) si d(me)se + d(Sgen) = dS SB: I fQ)R/T + (mi si - me se) + Sgen = (Sf Si) (iii) SSSF: SRB: (QR/T)/dt + dm/dt(si - se) + d(Sgen)/dt = 0 (iv) SDB: QR/T + dm(si - se) + d(Sgen) = 0 (v) SB: I fQR/T + (mi si - me se) + Sgen = 0 (vi) Unit mass basis: SRB: (qR/T)/dt +d(si - se)/dt + d(Sgen)/dt = 0 (vii) SDB: qR/T + d(si - se) + d(Sgen) = 0 (viii) SB: I f (qR/T) + (si - se) + sgen = 0 (ix)

(i) (ii)


WR Q T i *Second law: TdS = QR; (iii) Since the process is reversible, dQR is reduced to property changes inside the system and equal to property changes- TdS. Combining eq. (i) and (ii): TdS PdV = dU (iv) Eq. (iv) is a property relation and it relates only the properties. Thus it can be used to determine thermodynamic property changes b/w specified thermodynamic states. Hence, it applies for both reversible as well as irreversible processes because, the properties of a substance depend only on states. This is because the eq. (iv) is independent of the path. Hence, even if the property change is due to irreversible process, it can be determined by integrating the change along a hypothetical reversible path. Note: Even if there is an internal irreversibility, TdS will give heat generated and equal to dQR only. And pdv will give the displacement work. The 1st law shall still apply for the intrinsic property change due to internal irreversibility. U U+dU f * First law: Q W = dU; (i) This eq. relates boundary phenomena (where work and heat are crossing the system boundary, and may be either in reversible or irreversible manner) and property changes inside the system. Q PdV = dU; (ii) Here, the Work transfer across the boundary is in reversible manner and is reduced to property changes inside the system as pdV.

Ex.6.1(pkn) A cyclic heat engine operates b/w a source temp. of 800 deg C and a sink temp. of 30 deg C. What is the least rate of heat rejection per kW net output of the engine? Soln. R= 1 Ql/Qh = 1 Tl/Th Th=1073K = 1 303/1073 Qh = 0.718 WR1=1kW R1 WR1 = 0.718Qh Ql 1 = 0.718Qh Tl=303K Qh = 1.392 kW Now, Ql = Qh WR1 = 1.392 - 1 = 0.392kW Ans.

Ex 7.1(pkn) Water flows through a turbine in which friction causes the water temperature to rise from 35 deg C to 37 deg C. If there is no heat transfer, how much does the entropy of the water change in passing through the turbine? (water is incompressible and the process can be taken to be at constant volume.) Soln.

1 T1=35


TdS = Q = MCvdT dS = 1. CvdT/T 1 2 dS = 1 2 CvdT/T S2-S1 = Cv.ln (T2/T1) = 4.18[kJ/kg.K] ln(310/308) = 0.027 kJ/kg.K Ans.

T2=37 T

2 2

1 dS


Ex7.2(pkn) (a)One kg of water at 273 K is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 373 K. When the water has reached 373K, find the entropy change of the water, of the heat reservoir, and of the universe. (b) If water is heated from 273 to 373K by first bringing it in contact with a reservoir at 323K and then with a reservoir at 373K, what will the entropy change of the universe be? (c) Explain how water might be heated from 273 to 373K with almost no change in the entropy of the universe. To find: (a) S/water, S/res., Suniv =? (b) Suniv =? (c) method of heating for Suniv = 0. Soln. (a) TdS = QR = M.CvdT dS = 1.CvdT/T TER at 373K 1 2 dS = S/water = (S2 S1) = Cvln(T2/T1) =4.18[kJ/kg.K]ln(373/273) = 1.305 kJ/kg.K QR = 1.Cv(T2-T1) = 4.18(373-273) = 418.7 kJ S/res = QR /T = - 418.7/373 = - 1.122 kJ/kg.K TER at 323K Suniv= S/water+ S/res =1.305 1.122= 0.183 kJ/kg.K (b) S/water1 + S/water2 =Cv(lnT2/T1 + lnT3/T2)=1.305 * S/res1 + S/res2 =-Cv(323-273)/323 - Cv(373-323)/373 = -0.647 -0.56 = -1.207 Suniv = 1.305 + -1.207 = 0.098 1 kg initially
at 273K

Ex6.2(pkn) A domestic food freezer maintains a temp. of 15 deg C. The ambient air temp. is 30 deg C. If heat leaks into the freezer at the continuous rate of 1.75kJ/s what is the least power necessary to pump this heat out continuously?

Th=(273+30)K Qh R WR=? Ql=1.75kJ/s

To find: WR =? Soln: For min. WR the freezer should be reversible and have the max cop. The condition for this is Qh/Th = Ql/Tl (i) Cop = (desired o/p)/reqd. I/p =refrigerating effect/WR = Ql/WR = Ql/ (Qh - Ql) = 1/(Qh/Ql - 1) = 1/(Th/Tl - 1); eq (i) (ii) = 1/(303/258 -1) = 5.75 Again, we know: cop = Ql/WR 5.75 = 1.75/WR WR = 0.304 kJ/s = 0.304 kw



Ex6.4(pkn) A Carnot engine absorbs 200 J of heat from a reservoir at the temp. of the normal boiling point of water and rejects heat to a reservoir at the temp. of the triple point of water. Find the heat rejected, the work done by the engine and the thermal efficiency.

Qh = 200 J
R WR= ? Ql =? Tl=273.16K = ?

Soln. = Wnet/Qh = (Qh Ql)/Qh = 1 Ql/Qh Carnot engine is a reversible engine hence, c = 1 Tl/Th = 1- 273.16/373 = 0.27 = 27% ans Now, c = WR/Qh 0.27 = WR/200 WR = 54 J Ql = Qh WR = 200 54 = 146 J

ans. ans.

Ex6.5(pkn) A reversible heat engine operates b/w two reservoirs at temp. of 600 deg C and 40 deg C. The engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates b/w reservoirs at temp. of 40 deg C and -20 deg C. The heat transfer to the heat engine is 2000 kJ and the net work output of the combined engine refrigerator plant is 360 kJ. (a) Evaluate the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to the reservoir at 40 deg C. (b) Reconsider (a) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the COP of the refrigerator are each 40 % of their max. possible values. Th=873K Qh = 2000kJ HER WR WR Wnet=360kJ R Qh=? Tl = 253K
R/HE = 1 Tl/Th = 1 313/873 = 0.64 WR = Qh. R/HE = 2000.(0.64) = 1280 kJ

Ql=? Hence, work fed to the refrigerator is

Ql =?

= 1280 360 = 920 kJ COP/Ref = Ql/WR = Ql/(Qh Ql) = 1/(Qh/Ql - 1) = 1/(313/253 - 1) = 4.22 Now, 4.22 = Ql/920 Ql = 3882.4 kJ
Qh = Ql + WR = 3882.4+920 = 4802.4 kJ Ql = Qh-WR =2000-1280 = 720 kJ Net Heat Rejection to the res. Tl=4802.4+720=5522.4kJ


(b) /HE = 0.40(0.64) = 0.256; cop/ref = 0.40(4.22)= 1.69 Ql =20000.256(2000)=1488kJ; WR = 2000-1488=512kJ; WR =512-360=152kJ; Ql= 1.69(152) =256.88kJ; Qh =256.88+152=408.88kJ; Hence, the net heat rejection = Ql + Qh =1488+408.88=1896.88kJ