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The Indian Oil and Gas sector is core industry for India. It meets around 52 per cent of the countrys primary energy demand and contributes over 15 per cent to the gross domestic product (GDP).

The first structured oil well were built in the Gulf of Mexico. European oil well were built during the 1920s. Disaster of the North Sea UK(1988)


1) Seismic Exploration Seismic waves reflect off rock formations and travel back to hydrophone receivers. Geologists then estimate the structure and types of formations under land by measuring travel times of the returned energy. This tells them where to drill.

2) Preparing to drill requires: Clearing the land and building access roads. Have a source of water nearby, or drill a water well. Digging a reserve pit for rock and mud that comes up in the drilling process.

3) Drilling: Drill the surface hole, and after reaching the pre-set depth, cement the casing so it does not collapse. Drilling continues in stages: They drill, then run and cement new casings, then drill again. Run tests to make sure they are at the right depth. 4) Extracting the Oil: Remove the drill, and place a pump on the well head. The pump system forces the pump up and down, creating a suction that draws oil up through the well. If the oil is too heavy a second hole is drilled where steam pressure is injected. Heat from the steam thins the oil, and the pressure pushes it up the well.

5) Production Gas and oil are gathered and transported, through pipelines or ships, to processing facilities. Gasoline and natural gas are used as fuel in the transportation sector. Oil can be stored in specially built tanks before being processed into products or exported. Oil and gas can be used as fuel in the generation of electrical power. Oil and gas are exported either as refined products or crude oil in specialized tankers. 6) Social and Economic Benefit The activities of the oil value chain create wealth in the form of taxes, and dividends for countries and help provide more employment opportunities.

Upstream: Comprises exploration and productivity activities. Midstream: Involved in storage and transportation of crude oil and natural gas Downstream: Refining and production of petroleum products and processing storage marketing of petroleum products


Products Being Produced:

Gasoline Kerosene Jet Fuel Lubricants

Galons obtained from the destilation of a 42gal. barrel

25 21 20 15 11 10 5.3 5 0 Gasoline Kerosene gas oil and heavier distillates destillates Product Jet Fuel Lubricants 2 9 5.3 3 0 3 0 4 20.4

Natural Gas

Major Substitutes
Nuclear Power Hydrogen Hydropower Coal Methane Solar energy

1920 Now


oExxon Mobil oRoyal Dutch Shell oPetroChina oPetrobras oBP oChevron oGazprom oTotal oSinopec-China Petroleum oConcophillips


Indian Oil Corporation ONGC BP RIL Petroleum Ltd Essar Oil Ltd Gas Authority of India HP Corp Aban Oil India Ltd Tata Petrodyne

As Per 14th June 2012


Created in 1960 Original Member Countries Iran Iraq Kuwait Saudi Arabia Venezuela Objective statement

Crude Oil production for April-July 2011 was 12.858 million metric tonne (MMT), as compared to the 11.985 MMT in April-July 2010. Natural Gas production during April-July 2011 was 16356.3 million cubic metres (MCM). During April-July 2011, 57.01 MMT of crude oil was refined, compared to 54.33 MMT refined during corresponding period in 2010.

BMIs report Q3 2011:-Indias share of gas consumption in 2010 was an estimated 10.9% In 2010, India consumed roughly 2.3 Tcf of natural gas, more than 750 billion cubic feet (Bcf) more than in 2008, according to EIA estimates. Regional oil use of 20.6m(b/d) in 2001 reached an estimated 26.4mn b/d in 2010 and is forecast to rise to around 29.6mn b/d by 2015.

Oil consumption is projected to enhance by 4-5 per cent per annum to 2015, indicating a demand of 4.01 million b/d by 2015. Demand for petrol is expected to expand by 6.7 per cent (388,000 b/d) by end of 2012 McKinsey anticipates that natural gas demand in India is expected to increase from current 166 million standard cubic meters per day to 320 million standard cubic meters per day by 2015.

Strengths Developing economy Government decisions

Weakness Crude prices Lack of freedom

Opportunities Equity oil Natural gas

Threats Competition Continuing Government interference

Political Factors Production Natural causes Inventory Demand Economic Factors

Social Factors

Renewable Resources Ethanol Hybrids Nuclear power

CONSERVATION Some people suggest that greater concentration on conservation is key Most of us all over the world still waste fuel on a excessive scale, and the savings we could make by greater efficiency, and by just switching off, are immense