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# Department of Electrical Engineering

## MODULE EEE344: PRINCIPLES OFCOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Presented By:

Email: adnanmir@ciit.net.pk Room No. 328 Department of Electrical Engineering Comsats Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad 22060 Pakistan

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Syllabus: Part 1

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## Linearity and Non-linearity, and their Effects

Time and Frequency (Fourier Analysis) Transfer and Unit Impulse Response Functions Continuous and Discrete Systems

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SOURCE

SINK

## RECEIVER SITE (DECODER) NOISE & DISTORTION

Any practical communication system can be mapped on to this generalised framework. Objective of the communication system is to reproduce source signal at sink. Functions of individual elements and their signal processing requirements will now be considered.
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## Department of Electrical Engineering

1.2 GCS Elements and their Signal Processing (SP) Requirements 1.2.1 Source

SOURCE

INFORMATION (ESSENTIAL)

REDUNDANCY (NON-ESSENTIAL)

Many sources can be processed to remove some of the redundancy and hence allow the transmission channel to be used more efficiently. This is a function of the source encoder. Also, analogue sources, e.g. speech, may be digitized; this is a further function of the source encoder and involves sampling and quantization. As more is known of source characteristics, so a more efficient source encoder can be designed.

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## 1.2.2 Source Encoder (a) Data

Data compression coding requires statistical analysis of data, e.g.

Data Word 101 010 110 111 100 011 000 001 Total

Probability 0.6 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.00

## Compressed Word 0 10 1101 1110 1111 11000 110010 110011

Average number digits after encoding average number of digits before encoding for compression to be successful. Signal processing involves statistical analysis of source data and code design.

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## 1.2.2 Source Encoder (cont.) (b) Speech

Source encoding typically involves ADC and compression.
REGIONS OF HIGH ENERGY

SPEECH SPECTRUM

FREQUENCY 0 f1 f2 f3 f4 4kHz

Only information on high energy regions is digitized and transmitted, together with voiced/unvoiced decisions. Thus, effective sampling rate is reduced. Signal processing requires real-time digital spectrum analysis routines, digital filtering and analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC).

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## 1.2.2 Source Encoder (cont.) (c) Image

Source encoding involves digitization and compression.

PIXEL

x
After digitization, typically employs 2-D digital spatial transform to describe areas of some pixel type efficiently; also frame-to-frame differential encoding, and variablelength compression coding (MPEG algorithm). Signal processing requires 2-D transforms, differential encoding, data compression coding and ADC.

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## 1.2.3 Channel Encoder

Function of the channel encoder is to protect the source-encoded data against errors caused by noise/distortion on the transmission channel. Involves error control coding to detect and/or correct errors:

INFORMATION

PARITY CHECKS

CODEWORD

Involves modulation to match the coded data to the type of channel being used (baseband or RF carrier). As more is known about the channel characteristics, so a more efficient channel encoder can be designed. Signal processing involves time and frequency domain analysis of waveforms and spectra, together with code design and ADC.

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## Department of Electrical Engineering

1.2.4 Channel
Typical effects: Gaussian and/or non-Gaussian noise; Multipath; Doppler Shifts; Delay; Fading. Signal processing to counter channel effects on the received signal may include noise suppression, equalisation, frequency offset correction, automatic gain control and diversity combining.

## 1.2.5 Channel Decoder

Converse of channel encoder: demodulation and decoding; again time and frequency domain processing, together with ADC.

## 1.2.6 Source Decoder

Converse of source encoder: data expansion and possibly DAC.

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