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Why do we need to study this course?

We have just one planet which can sustain life and not 9. The resources are limited Space on earth Nonrenewable energy, Natural resources .The environment is depreciating in life sustaining capabilities at an ever increasing pace. At this rate, the day is not far when we reach a point of no return and face the wrath of global climatic change. We need to understand our

Physical Environmen t Lithosphere

Atmospheric environment

Types of Environment
Biological Environme nt
Flora Fauna Microbial Environment Hydrosphere

Enviro nmen t

Cultural Environment

Conglomerate of all basic and applied

sciences, engineering ,socio economic aspects, management & law. Factors responsible for Diversity: Ethnic, geological, Geographical, Climatic, Social consideration, Economic and cultural Circumstances Human Environment: Matrix of elements derived by evolution through nature and contained by culture/ sum total of identified and identifiable

Environment Management
Optimal utilization of the finite

resources between different possible uses.

Environmental criteria and

economic considerations demand that such an allocation be efficient. (protection from

Tangible: Airflows, water,

minerals, fuels, food, materials Nutrient cycling, climate regulation and removal. Degradation of residuals or wastes other pleasing features


Aesthetic: Scenic, Recreational and

Renewable vs Non- renewable

Environmental Management
Broadens the concept in scope to

include development and enhancement of environmental quality. Extend the concept of time to include sustainable long term feasibility Assesses the costs to the society and the environment in achieving the desired balance between dimensions . Comprehensive planning that takes into account the side effects of man's activities and thereby protects and improves the human environment for

What is Environmental Management

What is Environmental

Management It is the management of All the components of biological, physical and chemical in both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) The interaction of social, cultural, and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.

Impact of EM Decisions The enterprise and the community are part of one system: therefore, decisions must be taken by the community. Potential consequences of actions before their implementations to assess their impact on the total system.

Sound environmental management, which is cost effective since it achieves higher productivity through a more efficient use of energy and raw materials, increases workforce motivation, achieve enterprise goals of survival , growth and profitability, with limited community conflict. Series of compromises using limited resources to achieve multiple goals.

Sustainable Development
Rate of consumption or use of

natural resources should approximate the rate at which these resources can be substituted or replaced
System Analysis: how economic,

social and environmental system interact at various scales of operation for optimal balance

Fundamentals concerning Environment & sustainable development

Population & its implications-

relationship of population growth & environmental damage= I=P*A*T I=Impact on environment P=Population A=Affluence(consumption) T=Technology coefficient Limits to growth

The Limit to Growth of Environment

Sources Natural resources Society Processing and use Sinks Waste and pollution

The human population and economy depend upon constant flows of raw materials such as air, water, mineral, fossil fuel from earth. The human society use those resources to produce product for consumption. The processes constantly emit waste and pollution back to the earth. The limit to the ability of the planetary sources to provide those stream of material and energy, and limits to the ability of the planetary Sinks to absorb the pollution and waste are limits to growth for the human society. In other words, the limits to growth are limits to the flow of materials and energy needed to keep the society functioning.

Economy-Rate of GNP is

considered to be an indicator of economic performance of any nation Increase in GNP indicates the economic health of the country is good. But such increase in the ultimate analysis is based on high rate of consumption of natural resources of which environmental degradation is the result In such situation ,economic growth comes in conflict with issues of

Poverty-it is multidimensional

problem and a major challenge all over the globe.

Human settlement issues-the

thrust of human settlement programmes should be on : -Providing shelter to all -Investing infrastructure for providing water and managing sewage and solid waste

-promoting sustainable land use management

Land resources-planning and

management of land resources constitute another area of concern for environment it not only includes physical entity in terms of topography but it also includes natural resources, soil, minerals etc.
Forests-Sustainable forest

development ,production of forest

Mountains-about 10% of

population depends directly on mountain resources but the mountain ecosystem is undergoing degradation due to which vegetation is getting extinct i.e. (flora & fauna) with the result that inhabitants of hills are facing resource crunch. Agriculture-Agriculture has to meet the challenge of growing population mainly by increasing

Biodiversity Protection of Oceans Business and industry Ecological deficit Village and community


Major Environmental Problems

Intensive agriculturisation including degradation

of soils due to overuse of chemicals fertilizers, degradation of ground water quality, increase in the use of pesticides leading to health hazards and decline in the crop diversity. Population explosion has further increased the pressure on natural resources such as forests and mangroves. Problems related to industrialization and urbanization

The lopsided development policies have resulted in

degraded soils depletion of water tables ,increased floods, desertification, water logging and pollution of air, water and loss of biodiversity. Adoption of less environment friendly technologies has resulted in air and water pollution which has made most of our major rivers dirty.
while the major industries are responsible for macro

environmental problems the unchecked growth of informal manufacturing sector in most of the urban centers has spoiled the microenvironment.

The concentration of coal mining ,thermal

power plants and fertilizers plants in the urban areas has led to serious problems with regard to air, water and land pollution.

Indias efforts for Environmental Protectionpublic policy and Role of NGOs

India recognized the significance of environmental protection and resource conservation before first International meet on Environment the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment was convened by UN in 1972.Within five years of this conference India amended its constitution to include Environment Protection as

Soon after the Stockholm conference, India set up a National Committee On Environment Planning and co-ordination (NCEPC)committee was concerned with issues relating to appraisal of development projects human settlements planning spread of environment education etc. Tiwari Committee on Environment-It was set up in 1980 for reformation of central and state acts on water ,air,forests,etc.It also established the separate department of Environment.
National Committee on Environment

Later the environment protection enactments like Environment protection act

1986 Amendments in 7 & 8th five years plans. Laws like Water act. Forest act Air act Wildlife act etc.

Role of NGOs
NGOS usually act as mediators between governments and citizens. They work at the grass roots or community level as also with poor or socially disadvantaged people and provide them necessary support. They made the national and international commitments for protection of environment by entering into agreements /protocols made at international level are meaning less without their enforcement.

The reasons for poor implementation may be: Lack of political will Scarcity of fund Decisions taken in regard to environmental issues not be very sound. Implications of such decisions could not be properly visualized.

Most of the NGOS get fund from the govt. or aid from other agencies. There are other NGOs that do not accept funds from others and raise funds through charities. For eg: Bill gate the words richest no.1 donated 37 billion US dollars for world health program me trust. Warren Buffet, the words richest no.2 donated 37 billion US dollars to the same trust.

Achievements By NGOS
Boycott of service station of Shell

Company in Germany In 1999,WTO organized a meeting in Seattle,washington attended by 5000 delegates including environment ministers, But WTO was not willing to consider environmental and poverty issues adequately. Govt of Taiwan wanted to a piece

Indian Scenario:
Chipko Movement Technology for Safe and

Hygienic Human Waste Narmada Valley project

Present Status OF Environment /Role s of the Industries

initiative of the Taj Group of HotelsSustainable management of hotels is a relatively new concept. The EcoTaj is a movement to standardize environment friendly practices in every aspect of the company. Environment initiative of the Taj group started in 1995 when the group was invited to become a council member of International hotels Environment Initiative.

The major goals of Eco-Taj environmental initiative are: To demonstrate the use and application of green technologies to the Indian Tourism industry. To motivate and educate employees to provide inputs into new and improved environmental practices. To create economic opportunities

To increase tourism opportunities

in India by providing a sound environmental image for the Taj group when exploring new tourism destinations. The above objectives are guided by the Corporate Environmental policy. This policy is applicable to all hotels and air catering units owned and managed by Taj group of hotels .

5-Point Basic Minimum Environmental Program me (BMEP)

It aims at covering all units of the group include: 1.Environmental Training to be part of operating training and to be included in the induction programme of all new employees .Environmental policy to be communicated and explained to each staff. 2.World Environment Day (5 June) to be celebrated every year for generation of awareness about environmental issues among guests, staff and suppliers.

3.All requirements of respective environmental legislation to be met by all units all the time 4.Energy audit to be conducted by all units once in three years . 5.All units were expected to reduce their fresh water consumption by 20 percent of the average annual consumption from all sources by 2001. This could be achieved by reducing usage or by recycling waste water.

Overview of the Initiative

The most innovative elements of the Eco Taj programme are the following: A comprehensive decentralized companywide environmental management programme Demonstration of Green Technology and its applications in hotel and tourism industry.

Its initiative include: Green Technology Waste water Treatment Solar Power Vermiculture CFC-Free Air Conditioning Chlorine free water treatment Energy saving lightning Environmental communication Eco-ideas contests. Guest Communication.

Hindalco-In the company's own words we

Other Industries

subscribe for eco-efficiency. It entails manufacturing products and providing services in a manner that conserves natural resources minimizes wastes and ensures pollution control National Organic Chemical Industries Limited: The company has continued its efforts in protecting and improving its environment continue to be recognized and appreciated with awards from prestigious institutions. The afforestation projects of eth company has achieved a great success and all the hills behind the factory are having a dense

BSES LIMITED-The companys care and

concern for environment continue to be recognized and appreciated with awards from prestigious institutions. The Andhra Petrochemicals Limited-In the company ,safety occupational health and environmental protection continue to be accorded priority and safety standards are continually reviewed. BOROSIL- the company is striving to ensure: pollution control in eth manufacturing and other units ,safe working conditions to all employees One of the important developments in industrial response is the interest shown by companies to adopt ISO 14001 standards which are expected