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Chapter 8

Completing the Revolution,


1789-1815

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Establishing the Government

• George Washington, 1789


• Inaugurated as first President
• New York City

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The “Republican Court”
• George Washington: Mr. President
• Vice-President John Adams
• Importance of Presidential pomp and
circumstance
• Thomas Jefferson: lone democrat in the
administration

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The First Congress
• James Madison, author of the Constitution
• Bill of Rights
• Judiciary Act of 1789

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Hamiltonian Economics: The
National Debt
• Alexander Hamilton
– Secretary of Treasury
– Report on Public Credit (1790)
• Foreign debt paid promptly and fully
• Domestic debt—government issue securities to
debtholders that pay 4% interest

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Hamiltonian Economics: The
Bank and the Excise Tax
• Bank of the United States
– Handle government revenue and disbursements
– Privately owned and controlled
– Carbon copy of Bank of England
• Taxes
– Excise taxes: alcohol, tea, coffee, etal.
– Whiskey tax to set precedent of federal
government imposing and collecting internal
tax
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The Rise of Opposition
• Madison led congressional opposition to
Hamilton’s proposals
• Jefferson joins Madison’s opposition
• Compromise reached:
– In exchange for accepting Hamilton’s proposals
on the debt, the permanent capital of the United
States would be located on the Potomac River

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Jefferson versus Hamilton

• Jefferson and strict constructionism


• Hamilton and loose constructionism
• Federalists

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The Republic in a World at War,
1793-1800
• French Revolution erupts
• France is at war with Austria and Prussia
• France declares war on Britain and kill its
king
• A war between French republicanism and
British-led reaction
• Ends in French defeat, 1815

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Americans and the French
Revolution

• Americans sympathetic to French Revolution


– Jeffersonian Republicanism
– Grateful for French help in American revolution
• Washington declares American neutrality
• U.S. commerce and financial health depended on
good relations with Great Britain
• Jefferson and Madison lead French sympathizers

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Citizen Genêt

• Citizen Edmond Charles Genêt


• British Orders in Council
• French ignored neutrality of the U.S.
• British engaged in overt and covert acts of
war

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Western Troubles
• Shawnee attack frontier settlers
• “Mad” Anthony Wayne and the Battle of Fallen
Timbers (1794)
• Whiskey Rebellion
• George Washington orders militia troops against
Whiskey Rebellion

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The Jay Treaty
• Jay’s Treaty
– British agree to abandon forts on U.S. soil
– U.S. grants Britain Most-Favored-Nation trading status
– Nothing said of impressment or other British violations
– New England and port cities for it
– South opposed
• Pinckney Treaty
– Thomas Pinckney
– Favorable Florida border
– Americans can use Mississippi River and port of New
Orleans
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Washington’s Farewell

• Set 2-term limit


• Secured U.S. control of West
• Farewell address warnings
– “entangling alliances”
– “factions”
• Democratic Republicans

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The Election of 1796

• John Adams, Federalist candidate


• Thomas Jefferson, Democratic Republican
candidate
• John Adams won Presidency
• Thomas Jefferson won Vice-Presidency

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Troubles with France,
1796-1800

• France breaks off relations because of Jay’s


Treaty
• XYZ Affair
• France vs. U.S. in the Caribbean

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The Crisis at Home,
1798-1800

• Federal property tax


• Alien and Sedition Acts
– William Duane of the Philadelphia Aurora
– Matthew Lyon
• Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

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The Politicians and the Army

• Federalists implemented request that


Congress create standing army
• Adams becomes suspicious of Hamilton
and “High Federalists”
• Adams negotiates peace with France

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The Election of 1800
• Many believe Federalist using war with France to
impose their rule and destroy opposition
– Alien and Sedition Acts
– Federalist military buildup
– Crushing of Fries Rebellion
• Democratic-Republicans--Thomas Jefferson and
Aaron Burr
• Federalists: John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney
• Result: Jefferson and Burr tie
• Congress chooses Jefferson
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The Jeffersonians in Power:
The Republican Program

• Plea for unity, “we are all Republicans,


we are all Federalists”
• Jefferson’s “wise and frugal
government”
• Simplified social tone of administration

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Cleansing the Government
• Reduced size and expense of government
• Substantial cuts in military
• Jefferson dismantled repressive apparatus of
Federalist state
• Reduced government expenditures and debt

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The Jeffersonians and the Courts

• Jefferson distrusted Federalists controlled


Judiciary
• John Marshall
• Judiciary Act of 1801 and the “midnight
judges”

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The Impeachments of Pickering
and Chase

• John Randolph
• John Pickering
• Samuel Chase

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Justice Marshall’s court
• Marbury v. Madison (1801)
– William Marbury
– judicial review
• Burr’s trial for treason
– Burr kills Hamilton in a duel
– Burr’s conspiracy and trial
– Marshall acquits Burr

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Louisiana
• Purchase of Louisiana Territory from
France, 1803
• New Orleans
• Dilemma for Jefferson: he had no
constitutional power to buy the territory, but
offer could not be refused
• Jefferson easily reelected in 1804

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The Republic and the Napoleonic
Wars, 1804-1815

• Napoleon Bonaparte declared war on Great


Britain, 1803
• 11-year war dominated national politics of
the United States
• Americans wanted neutrality

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The Dilemmas of Neutrality

• Britain’s Essex Decision (1805)


• Congress retaliates with Non-importation
Act
• Napoleon’s Berlin and Milan Decrees

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Trouble on the High Seas

• Impressment and naval seizures


– 6000 Americans impressed by British
– Chesapeake Affair

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Embargo

• Embargo Act (1807) – peaceable coercion


• Embargo hurt American commerce
– 1807-1808, exports dropped from $108 million to $22
million
– Unemployment in port cities
• James Madison, elected President, 1808
• Federalists gain ground in some states

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The Road to War

• Non-Intercourse Act (1809)


• Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)

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The War Hawk Congress,
1811-1812
• Democratic Republicans divided
• War Hawks
– Henry Clay
– John C. Calhoun
• Madison sends list of grievances against
Britain
• Close vote, but war declared against Britain

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War Hawks and the War of 1812
• War Hawks declared war to defend:
– Sovereignty
– Western territory
– Maritime rights of United States
• Invasion of Canada

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The War with Canada,
1812-1813
• Detroit
– William Hull
– Isaac Brock
• Queenston Heights
• Canada saved

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Tecumseh’s Last Stand
• Red Stick Creeks
– Fort Mims Massacre
• Put-in-Bay (1813)
– Oliver Hazard Perry
• Battle of the Thames (1813)
• Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814)

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The British Offensive, 1814
• British burn Washington D.C.
• Francis Scott Key
– “Star Spangled Banner”
• British offensive in Great Lakes stalls
• Andrew Jackson
– Battle of New Orleans (1815)
– Gives U.S. national pride and a national hero

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The Hartford Convention
• New Englanders felt victimized by
Democratic Republican trade policies
• New England congressmen had voted
against going to war
• British continue to trade with New England
• Talk of Federalist New England secession
• Federalists called Hartford Convention,
1814
• Hartford Convention demands drowned out
by end of war and New Orleans victory
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The Treaty of Ghent
• British defeat Napoleon
• War reached a stalemate
• By 1814, both sides withdrew their
demands to end the war
• U.S.- Canadian border remained as it was in
1812

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Conclusion

• Federalist power grab thwarted


• Jefferson’s yeoman farmer dream shattered
• Republican congress - headed towards a
market society and capitalist democracy

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