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Microcatchment Interrow Water Harvesting

INTERROW WATER HARVESTING Runoff area :



Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

smoothing compaction sealing with sealants weeding

= 1 - 3 m

= 0.3 - 1 m

salts or other > 200 -500 mm/yr


= 1 : 1 to 5:1

=0-5%
soil depth > 1 m Millet, maize, beans, grapes, olive trees

Interrow Water Harvesting


Flat terrain 0 -1 % slope Slopes 1- 5 % slope

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

compacted bunds

alternating strips

Interrow Water Harvesting

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Runoff

Runoff orchard, New Mexico; Photo: Frasier

Interrow Water Harvesting

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

1.4 m

1.4 m

Cropped and compacted strips, Syria; Photo: Oweis

Interrow Water Harvesting


CONSTRUCTION : (by hand), rollers or tractors ADVANTAGES : can be fully mechanized LABOUR DEMAND : high (if manually implemented) DISADVANTAGES : high rainfall intensities may cause erosion on the cropped strips
Cropped and compacted strips, Syria

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Runoff

Runoff orchard, New Mexico

1.4 m 1.4 m

Interrow Water Harvesting


On flat land :
Runoff area compacted
Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Forms of interrow water harvesting on flat land; Source: Prinz


1986

increasing aridity

cropping area

Microcatchment : Contour Bench Terraces


CONTOUR BENCH TERRACE catchment even cropping area lip = 2 - 20 m

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

lip drain

= 2 - 10 m
drain water retardation = 200-600 mm /yr prevention of = 1 : 1 to 10 : 1

= 20 - 50 %

soil erosion

Trees, bushes, annual crops

Microcatchment : Contour Bench Terraces


Level bench

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

catchment lip
Drain optional

drain
Different types of contour bench terraces

Sloping bench

Contour Bench Terraces


DIMENSIONS :

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

strip width depends on slope

CONSTRUCTION :

manual by animal tractors or bulldozers

LABOUR DEMAND / COST :

high

Contour bench terraces for water harvesting; Source: Hurni 1986

LIMITATIONS :

bare surfaces increase runoff but enhance erosion

Construction of Contour Bench Terraces


Heel Fill Riser Subsoil Construction: Step One Establish pegs on contour Step Three Excavate and re-site fill Step Two Remove topsoil and place up slope Step Four Replace topsoil Toe-drain Topsoil and original surface
Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Pegs

Source: Rocheleau 1988; adapted

Contour Bench Terraces


Determine terrace width by soil depth and slope
Given different slopes (b, c) : greater soil depth wider terraces

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Given different soil depth (a, b) : gentler slope wider terraces


Slope % Width of bench terrace (m) Width of cropping area (m) No of benches / 100 m of slope Max. depth of cut (m) Catchm. area of riser /ha (m_) 5 20 18.5 5 0.47 919 10 10 8.5 10 0.45 1838 15 6.7 5.2 15 0.42 2758 20 5 3.5 20 0.40 3667 25 4. 2.5 25 0.37 4596 30 3.3 1.8 30 0.35 5515 35 2.9 1.4 35 0.32 6434

Details of bench terraces with 1 m v ertical interv al; Source: F AO 1976

`Linear Microcatchments - Comparison

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

terraces

contour ridges
interrow WH

increasing slope

Summary

Interrow and Contour Bench Terraces Unit 9

Interrow WH involves the compaction of the catchment and the establishment of catchment strips and cropping strips Contour bench terraces can be used on steeper slopes than interrow water harvesting or contour bunds Contour bench terraces have a drain and a lip Interrow water harvesting and contour bench terraces require a high labour input