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Welding Defects

Starting & Ending


Causes: -No proper current setting. -Incorrect use of electrode at start & finish. Remedies:-Correct current setting. -Pause at the beginning & reverse at the end. -Run on & off the plates.

Distortion
If the job heats non-uniformly, it would result in uneven expansion & contraction. Longitudinal, Transverse & angular.

Cont

How to avoid Distortion


Reduce the effective shrinkage force. -Over welding should not be done. -Proper Edge preparation & Fit up. -Reduce Number of passes. Make shrinkage force works to reduce distortion. -Locating parts out of position. -Spacing parts to allow shrinkage. -Prebending.

Cont.
Balancing Shrinkage force with another force. -Proper welding sequence -Preheating -Peening -Fixtures -Tack Weld

Arc Blow
Welding arc may be deflected away from the point of welding. Arc deflection, usually forward or backward of the welding direction, is known as 'arc blow.

Interaction between the directional magnetic field of the welding arc and the directional field of the residual magnetism.

How to avoid arc blow


Use as short an arc length as possible and the lowest current. Use alternating current (AC) rather than DC for the root run.

Reduce the residual magnetism in the steel to a tolerable level (less than 50 gauss)

Spatter
Too high current. Too long arc.

Incorrect electrical conditions.

Crater
Depression of the weld surface caused by the solidification of the molten weld pool after the arc has been extinguished. Causes-High Current, Long arc, etc.

Remedies- Back up plates.

Undercut
Excessive current & travel speed. Incorrect electrical condition.

Longer arc length.

Underfill & incomplete joint preparation

Overlap
Oversize electrode. Improper joint preparation.

Surface Porosity
Incorrect electrical condition. Long arc. Damp electrode. Wrong polarity.

Crack
Discontinuity caused by tearing of the metal(Hot crack) or by fracturing of the metal when cold(cold crack). Can occur in weld metal, at the fusion line or in base metal. Longitudinal cracks & transverse cracks.

Inclusion
Incorrect joint. Wrong electrode. High current.

Inadequate cleaning.

Lack of fusion
Insufficient current. High travel speed. Larger electrode dia.

Lack of penetration
Less current. High travel speed. Oversize electrode. Improper joints. Too large or small root face. Long arc length. Incorrect polarity.

Edge of the plate melted off


Oversize electrode. Excessive current.

Wrong electrode manipulation.

Thank You