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Vibration Monitoring

Maintenance Methods
1.

Breakdown Maintenance :
The machine is allowed to run until complete failure forces shutdown. Disadvantages:

Untimely/ unplanned failure. Often require extensive repair. More downtime of machine. Loss of production is higher.

Maintenance Methods
2.

Schedule Maintenance :
The machine is shutdown after specified period of operation & partially or completely dismantled for thorough inspection/ maintenance. This approach is having advantage of reducing the frequencies of shutdown.

Disadvantages:
- Full life of machine parts can not be extracted. - Machine may be degraded by frequent disassembly.

Maintenance Methods
3. Predictive Maintenance or Condition Based Maintenance :
Maintenance carried out in response to significant deterioration in a machine as indicated by a change in monitored parameters of the machine condition.

Maintenance Methods
Advantages of Condition Based Maintenance :
-

Scheduled shutdown with minimum effect on production. Well prepared work schedule results in to reliable repair. Minimises unscheduled breakdowns. Prolong machinery life. Increase machinery / human safety

Down Time Comparison

Condition Monitoring
Baseline Data

Baseline data representative of an equipment in a new and/or properly operating condition. The baseline data is the foundation of the predictive trending analysis required to forecast equipment condition. The baseline readings and periodic monitoring data should be taken under the same conditions (or as close as can be achieved).

Flow Chart of Condition Monitoring

Monitoring Techniques
Vibration Monitoring 2. Shock Pulse Monitoring 3. Temperature Monitoring 4. Lubricant Wear Particle Monitoring 5. Ultrasonic Inspection Non- Destructive testing: Radiography Ultrasonic testing Magnetic Particle. Dye Penetrant Hydrostatic Testing. Eddy Current Testing
1.

1. Vibration Monitoring
Defination of Vibration Characteristics of Vibration Measurement of Vibration

Transducers Instrument

Analysis of Vibration

Vibration Monitoring

What is vibration Motion of machine or machine part back & forth from its position of rest Detect 60 to 70% of the faults All machines vibrate Mechanical defect generate vibration in unique way

Vibration Characteristics
Three Characteristics of Vibration are
1. 2.

3.

Amplitude Frequency Phase

Vibration Characteristics
1.

Amplitude
Primary indicator of machines condition Displacement
Measurement of distance an object travels from position of rest.

Velocity
Measurement of observed displacement over some specific period of time

Acceleration
Measurement of observed velocity over some specific period of time

Vibration Characteristics - Amplitude

Vibration Characteristics
2.

Frequency
Measure of the number of complete cycles that occur in a specified period of time. f=1/T Helps in identifying the probable cause of vibration

3.

Phase
Position of vibration part at given instance with reference to a fixed point.

Vibration Measurement & Analysis


Signal Transudation (Transducers or Pickups) Signal Conversion Signal Analysis Signal Display Instrument

Vibration Transducers
Non contact displacement transducer (eddy current probe) Velocity pickup Accelerometer pickup

Vibration Transducers
Velocity pickup

Vibration Transducers
Accelerometer pickup

Vibration Transducers
Non contact displacement transducer

Vibration Instrument

Vibration Instruments FFT Analysers

Vibration Software

Machine Sketch

Vibration Analysis

Tri Axial Measurement


Horizontal Vertical Axial

Vibration Spectrum
Display of Vibration Amplitude vs. Frequency

Vibration Spectrum

Guide Line - OEM

ISO 10816 : Mechanical vibration - evaluation of machine vibration with measurements of non rotating parts
The measurement returns the RMS value of vibration velocity in mm/s or inch/s. part 1: general of guidelines part 2: Land-based steam turbines and generators in excess of 50 MW with normal operating speeds of 1500 r/min, 1800 r/min, 3000 r/min and 3600 r/min part 3: Industrial machines with nominally power above 15 KW of and nominally speeds between 120 r/min and 15000 r/min when measured in situ part 4: Gas turbine sets driven excluding aircraft of derivative part 5: Machine sets in hydraulic power generating and pumping plants Part 6: Reciprocating machines with power ratings above 100 kW

Vibration Identification Chart

Vibration Case Study


Vibration Report Machine : F Station C.T.I.D.Fan 3D
Sketch 1 2 3 Limits of Vibration Rough Motor Disp. m,H Gear Box & Fan Date Vel. (pk) mm/s 02-Dec-98 100-200 8.0-12.0 02-Dec-98 After Balancing Ampl. 11.0 1.6 16.0 2.3 6.0 1.2 11.0 1.6 20.0 2.7 9.0 1.9 18.0 2.3 30.0 4.0 11.0 1.7 Very rough >200 >16.0

Pos 1

Dir A A H H V V A A H H V V A A H H V V

Units m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s

Ampl. 134.0 11.0 100.0 9.0 48.0 5.0 132.0 11.0 178.0 15.0 135.0 12.0 80.0 7.2 195.0 18.0 52.0 6.3

Vibration Case Study


Vibration Report Machine : C1 Station I.D.Fan B
Sketch 1 2 3 4 Limits of Vibration as per BHEL Rough Motor Disp. m,H Fan Date Ampere Vane Units m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s Vel. (pk) mm/s 14-Jul-01 69 65 Ampl. 8.6 1.1 13.9 1.8 12.9 1.6 18.5 1.2 28.5 2.0 15.6 1.8 13.9 2.7 11.3 1.0 7.6 1.0 59.6 5.1 15.4 1.7 7.4 1.0 120-240 6.4-12.7 17-Aug-01 69 65 Ampl. 19.1 3.4 38.5 6.6 37.7 6.0 33.0 5.7 33.7 5.6 27.4 2.4 213.7 24.0 124.6 10.2 60.4 4.7 88.9 11.0 17.1 3.7 18.3 2.6 Very rough >240 >12.7 18-Aug-01 71 75 Ampl. 12.0 1.2 13.1 1.4 12.5 1.5 21.9 1.4 30.4 2.2 22.6 1.4 73.4 5.2 38.8 2.6 23.0 1.7 90.2 9.8 17.0 1.7 15.3 1.6

Pos 1

Dir A A H H V V A A H H V V A A H H V V A A H H V V

Vibration Spectrum (before & after attending)

D stn PA Fan A
TORRENT POWER AEC LIMITED
Sabarmati Thermal Power Station Limits of Vibration Rough Disp. m,H 80-160 Vel. mm/s 6.4-12.7 Pos. Brg. Fan DE

1
07/07/05 Ampl. 16.9 1.7

2 3

Very rough >160 >12.7 Dir H H V V A A Units m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s 10/05/05 Ampl. 14.5 1.3

42.2 3.0 66.4 4.0


43.3 2.6 19.8 1.7

62.8 4.4 93.0 6.1


48.4 3.4 29.2 2.2

Motor

Fan

Fan NDE

H H V V A A

62.4 4.0

85.8 5.7

Remarks

Loosness was suspected. Vib.at Base of fan stool on DE side (Estn. Side) were up to

108 micron.

Vibration higher on foundation bolt than bearings Recommended to check foundation bolt looseness

CMC

D stn PA Fan A

Tightening of the bolts carried out immediately by BMS Potential loss of equipment breakdown & Generation loss of 50 MW for 8 hrs (0.4 MU , Rs 7.2 lacs) could be avoided

TORRENT POWER AEC LIMITED


Sabarmati Thermal Power Station Limits of Vibration Rough Disp. m,H 80-160 Vel. mm/s 6.4-12.7 Pos. Brg. Fan DE

Very rough >160 >12.7 Dir H H V V A A Units m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s m,H mm/s 10/05/05 Ampl. 14.5 1.3 07/07/05 Ampl. 16.9 1.7 07/07/05 Ampl. 16.8 1.4

42.2 3.0 66.4 4.0


43.3 2.6 19.8 1.7

62.8 4.4 93.0 6.1


48.4 3.4 29.2 2.2

17.6 1.3 34.2 2.3


26.0 1.8 20.6 1.5

Fan NDE

H H V V A A

62.4 4.0

85.8 5.7

31.7 2.1

Remarks

Loosness was vib. at base suspected. Vib.at Base of fan stool of fan stool on DE upto 6 side (Estn. Side) were up to

108 microns

microns

CMC

Thank you

Shock Pulse Monitoring

Antifriction Bearings life influenced by


o o o

Installation Lubrication Maintenance

The technique is based on monitoring the mechanical impacts caused by bearing damage & operating condition problems is known as Shock Pulse Method (SPM)

Shock Pulse Measuring Instrument

Modes of Measurement

Data Input prior to measurement


SPM Type no. (1-8) Norm no., (10-58) o Last three digits of Brg.s ISO number o RPM

Manual Mode
Input data for bearing to be assessed Note down the readings

Modes of Measurement

Data Logging Mode


For setup of measuring points Software is used Measured readings are Stored in Instrument Stored data reported back to software

Measurement of Shock Pulse Readings

Evaluation of Shock Pulse Readings


LR & HR CODE LUB No. COND No.

SPM Measurement Data


Machine : D Stn. CEP 1C
LatestReadings LR: 60 HR: 52 Lub. : Code : D Cond : 38

Measuring Point Date Time D-115-02 C.E.Pump C 28-10-1997, 08:25 Motor DE brg. Brg. No.: NU 322 Speed :1480

Thank you
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Principle of Shock Pulse Method

Monitoring of Shock Pulses


Initial

Shock Pulse is affected by

Bearing Geometry Rolling Velocity

LR and HR

CODE

Lubrication No.

COND Number
< 30 Minor Damage

30 - 40
> 40

Increasing Damage Severe Damage

Relationship of Output Data

Brg. No. 6230, RPM 990 LR :41, HR 37, Code A, Lub No.2

Brg. No. NU230, RPM 990 LR :52, HR 48,

Code A, Lub No.5

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