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NatSci 014 Physical Science

Properties of Matter Structure of Matter

Matter: collectively called


Smallest piece of matter: atom; indivisible Proton: positively charged particle Neutron: no charge Electron: negatively charged particle Mass number: total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Atomic number : is the number of protons

Loss or gain of electrons would cause the development of an electric charge in an atom Ion: negative Anion: positive Calcium (Ca+2), calcium has a deficiency of 2 electrons

Atoms with the same atomic number but with different atomic masses are called isotopes Isotopes have identical chemical properties, yet have very different nuclear properties

For example, there are three isotopes of hydrogen Two of these isotopes are stable, (not radioactive), but tritium (one proton and two neutrons) is unstable Most elements have stable isotopes Radioactive isotopes can also be created for many elements

Mass number/ atomic number


No 2 different atoms have the same atomic number C 12; C13; C14 Atoms of the same kind varies in their mass numbers Same number of electrons, protons and neutrons These variety of atoms are called: isotopes They have the same chemical properties but different physical properties

Elements Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances O, C, He, H, etc Periodic table have about 110 listed elements About 90 exist in nature About 20 are man-made

Compounds
A combination of two or several elements which are chemically combined Elements loose their individual property when combined with another element The new compound assumes a new identity O and H to form HOH Eg Water is a chemical compound

Both elements in a cpd has definite proportions Therefore cpds have definite chemical formula CPDs combine chemically by means of chemical bonding:
The transfer or sharing of electrons

Bonding

Covalent bonding: electrons are shared by 2 elements;


Eg H-O-H -----HOH

Ionic bonding: transfer of electrons from one atom to another so atoms either lose or gain an electron Eg Na + Cl -------- Na Cl

Electrolyte, acids, bases


A cpd which dissociates into anions and cations when dissolved in water is called an electrolyte If it releases the H + ions when dissoved in water is an acid If it releases hydroxyl or OH ions is a base, NAOH, NHOH Mixing and acid and a base is a: SALT HCl + NaOH ------ NaCl + HOH

mixtures
Made up of 2 or more pure substances A heterogenous mixtures: consists of components that can be identified, eg
soil, rocks

A homogenous mixture: consists of components that cannot be distinguished Eg


sodium chloride or sugar in water

Solution/suspension/emulsion, colloids
Special mixture in which substances : the solute is dissolved evenly throughout by another which is the solvent Suspension: dispersed particles are of larger sizes Mixing clay in water, flour in water Allowing to stand, the particles of flour will settle at the bottom due their heavy weight

Emulsion: a mixture of fluid and fine droplets of another liquid Mixture of oil, vinegar and raw eggs, mayonnaise

Colloid: particles are dispersed are an intermediate size, too large to enter a solution abut too small to become suspensions, light weight Ink, milk, blood

Gel: a colloidal suspension in which the dispersed particles link together forming a jellylike mass Gelatin, agar-agar Aerosol: a dispersion in the air (sprays) Hydrosol: a dispersion in water (body lotion)

End of lecture