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TQM Evolution

Code of Hammurabi (2150BC) Quality terms (Total Quality Control, Total Quality Improvement, Service Quality Improvement or titles that relate to their particular area (Quality Maintenance System, Software Quality Assurance

Quality Control

Industrialization (Mass production) Inspection W.Shewhart (1924): Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Quality Assurance

George Edwards (inventor of the term) Assuring quality Standardization Policies Division of responsibility

Quality Improvement

Utilizing SPC Improving processes Reducing waste. Individual Improvement projects Monitoring variations

Quality Management

Improvement Plan at all levels of organization Internal Motivation Preventive practice

Total Quality Management

All aspects of organization adopting continuous improvement Change of organizational culture (shift from internal measures of efficiency towards assessment and improvement of value to the customers

Stages of TQM
Quality Control

Monitoring variations

Quality Assurance
Quality Improvement Quality Management Total Quality Management

Standards based
Process oriented Internally motivated Changed organizational culture

Managing TQM

What Does the TQM manager Need to Know?

Systems Thinking Understanding Variations Organizational Psychology

1. 2. 3.

Systems Thinking

Effective Management

Understanding Variations

Organizational Psychology

Systems Theory

Inputs Supplies Process Feedback Loop

Outputs Customers

Understanding Variations

Special cause variation Common cause variation Interpretation errors Process capability Example of probability (coin flipping)

Control Chart

Individual and Organizational Psychology

Efficiency Work place harmony Characteristic requirements of a person for a specific job

What Does the TQM Manager Need To Do?


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Demings 14 points Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service, with a plan to become competitive and to stay in business. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on mass inspection. End of the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. Institute training.; Institute leadership. Drive out fear

Cont. Demings 14 points

9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

Bread down barriers between department Eliminate slogans, exhortations and numerical goals that ask for new levels of productivity without providing methods. Eliminate numerical quotas. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. Institute a vigorous program of educations and retraining. Take action to accomplish the transformation.