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# ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

Manufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial Design

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## Engineering Technology Teachers Unit Kurikulum, Jabatan Pelajaran Perak.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Manufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial Design

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## MOTOR AND GENERATORS

LEARNING OUTCOME DC MOTOR TYPES

AC MOTOR TYPES

## MOTOR & GENERATOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES

MOTOR AND DC GENERATOR PARTS

DC GENERATOR TYPES

AC GENERATOR TYPES

LEARNING OUTCOME
STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

## 1. Describe the functions of motors and generators

2. Label the major parts of motors and generators

## 3. List types of motor and generator

4. Explain the principles of motors and generators

## DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MOTOR AND GENERATORS

Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy Uses electricity

EXAMPLE OF USE
Car starter Lift pulley Fan Drive for CD player Escalator Bicycle dynamo Portable generator Battery charger in a car Power station

Motor

Generator

## MOTOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR (DC)
1. 2. When the current flows through a wire, a magnetic field exist around the wire. When the wire is positioned inside a magnetic field, it will be pushed upwards and downwards according to the direction of the current and the magnetic polarity. If this wire is wound on an armature, the armature will rotate. The armature rotating principles is used in most DC motor.

3. 4.

## MOTOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTOR (AC)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. An AC motor armature is called a rotor Usually, a rotor has conductor in the shape of a squirrel cage. When a 3-phase AC supply connected to a 3-phase stator, a rotating magnetic field is produced. This rotating magnetic field tends to induce an electromotive force into the rotor. This causes current to flow within the rotor conductors. The rotor produces its own magnetic field. It is the interaction of the rotating magnetic field and the rotor's magnetic field which will cause the rotor to turn.

## GENERATOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES

EMF (Electric Motive Force) can be produced when the wire cut across the magnetic or the reverse situation. Number of EMF depends on: a. flux (magnetic field) b. number of conductor/wire c. number of pole d. Cutting speed

## MOTOR AND DC GENERATOR PARTS

a. In principles, there is no difference between motor and a generator. b. Motor can function as a generator and vice versa.

c. But there is a slight difference in the construction of motor and generator. They are divided into three main parts : Armature Magnetic Pole Connection Source

## 3. CONNECTION SOURCE (USE COMMUTATOR)

1. ARMATURE
The rotating part of the DC motor/generator. Located in the middle section of a machine. It is constructed from layers of cylindrical and groove ferrous metal sheets. The grooves will be coiled with copper wires plated with lacquer.

2. MAGNETIC POLES
The most important component in a motor and generator. The poles are constructed in pairs and are installed in the stator. The magnetic field strength increases the machine efficiency.

The speed of the motor will increase and the output voltage produced by the generator will increase as well.

3. CONNECTION SOURCES
A connection source is a connection place for the conductor at the armature depending on the types of supply. DC motor
the connection sources at the armature, uses a commutator.

AC motor
the connection source assembles at the stator.

Magnetic Poles

Armature Brush

DC generator

Commutator

## Magnetic Poles Slip Ring

AC generator
Connection source is built at the slip ring
Armature Brush

MOTOR TYPES
Motor used DC supply is called direct current motor (DC) Motor used AC supply is called alternating current motor (AC) Motor can be operated by using either a DC or an AC supply is called a universal motor

MOTOR

DC MOTOR

AC MOTOR

DC MOTOR

SERIES MOTOR

SHUNT MOTOR

COMPOUND MOTOR

1. SERIES MOTOR
CHARACTERISTICS
Has a small amount of coils Has wires which are coarse Has high torque Will be damaged if run without load because of its very high speed

CONNECTION
Series field wounding

USAGE
Used for work that needs high torque such as a car starter

2. SHUNT MOTOR
CHARACTERISTICS
Has fine wire coils Has large amount of windings Has constant speed with or without load Can be driven without load

CONNECTION
Has shunt windings Its field winding is connected parallel the armature

USAGE
Used for work that needs constant speed such as a lathe

3. COMPOUND MOTOR
CHARACTERISTICS
Has fine wire coils Has large amount of windings Has constant speed with or without load Can be driven without load

CONNECTION
Combined series winding and shunt winding

USAGE
Is suitable for all types of work, especially those that need high torque but are continuous such as a lift

AC MOTOR

REPULSIVE MOTOR

UNIVERSAL MOTOR

## SINGLE- PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

1. REPULSIVE MOTOR
Operation Principle
Single phase AC supply Produces mutual induction at the rotor. The magnetic field rotation at the stator pushes the magnetic field at the rotor.

Assemblance
A manipulator is connected to a commutator The source of end-connection at the rotor is crossed.

Usage
Light work. Electric fan.

## 2. SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Operation Principle
Assemblance

Usage
Induction actuator induction starter Electric fans Grinding machines Vacuum cleaners

Single phase AC supply, produces Coil at the mutual induction at the rotor. stator A supply phase is divided into two A squirrel cage to allow the magnetic field to rotor rotate at the stator. Some have The magnetic field rotation at the centrifuge stator is followed by the rotor. switches & capacitor

## 3. THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Operation Principle
Three-phase AC supply Produces a rotating magnetic field at the stator & a mutual induction at the rotor.

Assemblance
3 sets of coils at the stator. Squirrel cage rotor More powerful than single-phase motor

Usage
Light work. Air-cond Water pumps Air pumps

The rotor rotation follows the magnetic field rotation at the stator.

4. SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Operation Principle
3-phase supply. The rotor is supplied with DC. The rotors rotational speed is the same as the magnetic fields rotational speed at the stator.

Assemblance
3 sets of coils at the stator.
Its rotor is installed with squirrel cage rotor and a manipulator.

Usage
Central air conditioning, generator drives.
Continuous work at constant speed.

5. UNIVERSAL MOTOR
Operation Principle
Single Phase supply.
Both fields interact to produce rotation.

Assemblance
The stator is connected in series to the rotor. Rotor winding coil Uses a commutator.

Usage
Portable drills Food processors Vacuum cleaner

GENERATOR TYPES
Generator is differentiated by the way it generates electricity. A generator that produces an AC supply is called an alternator A generator that produces DC generator retains the name generatorGENERATOR

DC GENERATOR

ALTERNATOR

DC GENERATOR

SERIES GENERATOR

SHUNT GENERATOR

COMPOUND GENERATOR

1. A SERIES GENERATOR

CHARACTERISTICS Generates voltage after electric load is connected to its output. A series generator The value of voltage generated depends on load current.

2. A SHUNT GENERATOR

CHARACTERISTICS Its voltage is generated even without electric load The value of voltage generated is nearly constant

A shunt generator

3. A COMPOUND GENERATOR
CHARACTERISTICS Combines the series and shunt electrical circuits. Two compound generator, i.e. long shunt compound generator and short shunt compound generator.

A compound generator

GENERATOR TYPES
Generator is differentiated by the way it generates electricity. A generator that produces an AC supply is called an alternator A generator that produces DC generator retains the GENERATOR name generator

DC GENERATOR

ALTERNATOR

ALTERNATOR

A generator that produces an AC supply is called an alternator. In general, there are two types of alternator :
Stationary Field A Stationary Armature

END OF CHAPTER 9B