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# The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows.

Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.DavidAusubelEducational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.

Aerodynamics
Physical quantities of a flowing gas Source of aerodynamic force-flow field Equation of state for perfect gas

STREAMLINES
STREAMLINES REPRESENT A FLOW AND IS DEFINED AS IMAGINARY LINES ACROSS WHICH THERE IS NO FLOW. THE CLOSENESS OF STREAMLINES GIVE AN INDICATION OF FLOW SPEED

## WATER STREAMLINES ON F-16 MODEL

http://www.aerolab.com/water.html

## TYPES OF FLOWS: FRICTION VS. NO-FRICTION

Viscous: Flows with friction All real flows are viscous Inviscid flow is a useful idealization By neglecting friction analysis of flow is usually much easier! Inviscid: Flows with no friction

Flow very close to surface of airfoil is Influenced by friction and is viscous (boundary layer flow)
Stall (separation) is a viscous phenomena

Flow away from airfoil is not influenced by friction and is wholly inviscid
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TYPES OF FLOWS: COMPRESSIBLE VS. INCOMPRESSIBLE Compressible: Density of fluid elements may change from point to point All real flows are compressible Important for gases (rarely important for liquids) Most important at high speeds Incompressible: Density of fluid elements is always constant
General Rule of Thumb: If flow speed is less than about 100 m/s (or less than 225 MPH) flow can be considered incompressible or If flow is less than Mach 0.3, flow can be considered incompressible Mach number, M: ratio of local velocity to local speed of 8 sound, V/a

## The Standard Atmosphere

Nearly 150 million kilometers separate the sun and earth, yet solar radiation drives earth's weather.

Earth's Atmosphere

## Thin Gaseous envelope

99% of atmospheric gases, including water vapor, extend only 30 kilometer (km) above earth's surface.

## The Standard Atmosphere

Dynamically changing system Need of standard atmosphere (P,T and ) Flight test, Wind tunnel results and Aircraft performance SA mean values of P,T and as a function of altitude Table of common ref

## The Standard Atmosphere

Altitude-Quantitative use Geometric altitude (hG) Absolute altitude (ha) Local gravitational acceleration (g) Sea level gravitational acceleration (go) Geopotential altitude (h)

## Pressure & Density

The amount of force exerted Over an area of surface is called Air pressure! Air Density is The number of air Molecules in a given Space (volume)

## Vertical Pressure Profile

Hydrostatic Equation
Force balance on element of fluid Variation of Pr and Density with altitude

## dp = - *g*dhG dp = - *go*dh Geopotential altitude

If the net upward pressure force on the slab is equal to the downward force of gravity on the slab, the atmosphere is said to be in hydrostatic balance.

## Geopotential and Geometric Altitude

Summary

Standard Atmosphere
The values of temperature, pressure and density are never constant in any given layer of the atmosphere . Requirement for a standard atmosphere for the comparison of aircraft performances, calibration of altimeters and other practical uses. Standard Atmosphere (ISA) defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Standard Atmosphere
The ISA assumes a mean sea level Temp of +15C, a pressure of 1013.25 mb (14.7 psi) and a density of 1.225 kg /m3. The temperature lapse rate is assumed to be uniform at the rate of 6.5K per kilometer up to the height of 11 km (36,090 ft) above which it remains constant at 216.66 K

## The Hydrostatic Equation

Air pressure at any height in the atmosphere is due to the force per unit area exerted by the weight of all of the air lying above that height. Consequently, atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing height above the ground. The net upward force acting on a thin horizontal slab of air, due to the decrease in atmospheric pressure with height, is generally very closely in balance with the downward force due to gravitational attraction that acts on the slab. If the net upward pressure force on the slab is equal to the downward force of gravity on the slab, the atmosphere is said to be in hydrostatic balance.