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Management A Practical Introduction Third Edition

Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Chapter 2: Management Theory

Essential Background For Managers


How We Got To Where We Are Today Classical Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint Quantitative Viewpoint Systems Viewpoint Contingency Viewpoint The Learning Organization
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2

2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To Todays Management Outlook


WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT THEORIES? Understanding theoretical perspectives of management: helps us understand the present provides a guide to action provides a source of new ideas gives clues to the meaning of managers ideas gives clues to the meaning of outside events
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2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To Todays Management Outlook


Two perspectives of management are: the historical which includes three views classical, behavioral, and quantitative the contemporary which includes three views systems, contingency, and quality-management

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2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


Figure 2.1: The Historical Perspective

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2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To Todays Management Outlook


IS MANAGEMENT AN ART OR A SCIENCE? Management is both an art and a science

Evidence based management involves: observing events and gathering facts posing solutions or explanations based on those facts making predictions of future events testing predictions under systematic conditions
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Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Which of the following is a contemporary perspective of management? A) behavioral B) classical C) contingency D) quantitative
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 7

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Which of the following is a contemporary perspective of management? A) behavioral B) classical C) contingency D) quantitative
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 8

2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


WHAT IS THE CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT? The classical view of management emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently using two approaches: scientific - emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve productivity administrative - concerned with managing the total organization
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 9

Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor
Time-Motion

Gantt Charts Gilbreths


Principle of Motion Economy

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2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Frederick W. Taylor pioneered scientific management (emphasized the study or work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers) Frank & Lillian Gilbreth focused on improving efficiency, and popularized their ideas in the book (and later, the movie), Cheaper by the Dozen

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 11

2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


Frederick Taylor believed that managers could eliminate underachievement, which he called soldiering, by 1. evaluating a task scientifically 2. matching worker ability with the task 3. providing training and incentives 4. using scientific principles to plan work methods and make it easier for workers to do their jobs

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 12

Administrative Management
HENRI FAYOL MAX WEBER

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 13

2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


Administrative management was pioneered by Henri Fayol and Max Weber, and is concerned with managing the total organization Fayol identified the major functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and coordinating Weber believed that an organization should have: a well-defined hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, a clear division of labor, impersonality, and careers based on merit
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Fayols Principles of Organization


Unity of Command Hierarchy of Authority Division of Labor Subordination of Individual Interest Authority Degree of Centralization Communication Channels Order Equity Esprit de Corps

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Webers Organizational Principles


Job Descriptions Written Rules, decision guidelines, and policies Consistent Procedures, Regulations, Policies Staffing/Promotions based on Qualifications
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2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management


THE PROBLEM WITH THE CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT: TOO MECHANISTIC The classical theory essentially argued that by applying the scientific method, time and motion studies, and job specialization, productivity could be raised However, this view may be too mechanistic because it fails to consider human needs
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2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science


WHAT IS THE BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT? The behavioral viewpoint of management emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement This perspective was developed over three phases: early behaviorism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science Behavioral theory was pioneered by Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Elton Mayo
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2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science


Munsterberg believed that psychologists could contribute to industry by: 1. studying jobs and identifying people suited to them 2. identifying the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work 3. devising management strategies to encourage employees to follow managements interests

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2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science


Follett believed that: 1. organizations should operate as communities with managers and employees working cooperatively 2. organizations should resolve conflicts through integration where managers and workers talked over differences 3. managers should be facilitators, and workers should control the work process

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2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science Mayo developed a theory known as the Hawthorne Effect which suggested that employees worked harder if they felt that managers cared about their welfare and paid attention to them

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2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science


Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor pioneered the human relations movement which proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity Maslow argued that people are motivated by a hierarchy of human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and selfactualization McGregor theorized that a managers attitudes toward employees could either be Theory X (pessimistic, negative), or Theory Y (optimistic, positive) Understanding the theory can help managers avoid attitudes that become self-fulfilling prophecies
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Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Understanding human resource behavior and motivating employees toward achievement is part of the A) classical viewpoint B) administrative viewpoint C) management science viewpoint D) behavioral viewpoint
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 23

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Understanding human resource behavior and motivating employees toward achievement is part of the A) classical viewpoint B) administrative viewpoint C) management science viewpoint D) behavioral viewpoint
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 24

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Who argued that people are motivated by a hierarchy of human needs? A) Fayol B) Maslow C) Gilbreth D) Mayo
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 25

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Who argued that people are motivated by a hierarchy of human needs? A) Fayol B) Maslow C) Gilbreth D) Mayo
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 26

2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science


The human relations movement was considered too simplistic for practical use It was replaced by the behavioral science approach which relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers

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2.4 Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science & Operations Research


WHAT IS THE QUANTITATIVE VIEWPOINT? Quantitative management focuses on the application to management of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations Two branches of quantitative management are management science and operations management

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Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Operations management is an example of A) The classical view B) Management science C) The quantitative view D) The human relations movement
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 29

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM Operations management is an example of A) The classical view B) Management science C) The quantitative view D) The human relations movement
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 30

2.4 Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science & Operations Research


MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND OPERATIONS RESEARCH Management science focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organizations products or services more effectively
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Contemporary Perspective
WHAT IS THE CONTEMPORARY PRESPECTIVE? There are three contemporary management perspectives: systems, contingency, and qualitymanagement

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Contemporary Perspective
Figure 2.2: The Contemporary Perspective

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2.5 Systems Viewpoint


A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose The systems viewpoint sees the organization as a system of interrelated parts Thus, an organization is both a collection of subsystems (parts making up the whole system) and a part of the larger environment

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2.5 Systems Viewpoint


There are four parts in a system: inputs (the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organizations goods or services) outputs (the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent that are produced by the organization transformation processes (the organizations capabilities in management and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs) feedback (information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputs)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 35

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM All of the following are part of a system except

A) inputs B) feedback C) outputs D) contingency processes

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 36

Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM All of the following are part of a system except

A) inputs B) feedback C) outputs D) contingency processes

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 37

2.5 Systems Viewpoint


An open system continually interacts with its environment A closed system has little interaction with its environment Organizations that ignore feedback from the environment are vulnerable to failure

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Chapter 2: Management Theory


CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM The classical management viewpoint sees the organization as A) a contingency system B) a transformation system C) an open system D) a closed system
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2.6 Contingency Viewpoint


WHAT IS THE CONTINGENCY VIEWPOINT? According to the contingency viewpoint of management, a managers approach should vary according to the individual situation and the environmental situation

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2.7 Quality-Management Viewpoint


WHAT IS THE QUALITY-MANAGEMENT VIEWPOINT? The quality-management viewpoint of the contemporary perspective includes quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management Quality is the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs, and is one of the best ways to add value to a product and differentiate it from others Quality control is the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, and emphasizes a goal of zero defects
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B2-14

Quality Control Standards

Six Sigma () Quality


3.6M defects per million events

Statistical Quality Control (SQC)

Continually monitor all phases of production process for quality

Statistical Process Control (SPC)


Sample components at each stage and plotting results on a graph; eliminates need for QC inspection at the end - Deming Cycle (PDCA).

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)


Linking needs of end users to design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 42

2.7 Quality-Management Viewpoint


W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran led the push to total quality management Deming was instrumental in helping Japan develop its focus on quality in manufacturing Deming believed that managers often mistakenly blamed people for mistakes that were actually system failures Juran was also a pioneer in bringing the notion of quality to Japan Juran believed that a product or service should satisfy a customers real needs
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2.7 Quality-Management Viewpoint


Total quality management (TQM) is a comprehensive approach dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction

There are four components of TQM: 1. make continuous improvement a priority 2. get every employee involved 3. listen to and learn from employees and customers 4. use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems

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2.8 The Learning Organization In An Era Of Accelerated Change


WHAT IS A LEARNING ORGANIZATION? A learning organization is an organization that: creates and acquires knowledge transfers knowledge within itself modifies its behavior to reflect the new knowledge Organizations need to be learning organizations in order to deal with the many challenges of todays fast paced world
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2.8 The Learning Organization In An Era Of Accelerated Change


Some of the challenges include: the rise of virtual organizations - organizations whose members are geographically apart, usually working with email, collaborative computing, and other computer connections the rise of boundaryless organizations - fluid, highly adaptive organizations whose members, linked by information technology, come together to collaborate on common tasks, where collaborators may include competitors, suppliers, and customers the imperative for speed and innovation

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2.8 The Learning Organization In An Era Of Accelerated Change


the increasing importance of knowledge workers - someone whose occupation is principally concerned with generating or interpreting information an appreciation for human capital - the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions an appreciation for the importance of social capital - the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships a new emphasis on evidence-based management management based on the belief that firms need to face the facts about what actually works and what is total nonsense
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2.8 The Learning Organization In An Era Of Accelerated Change


To build a learning organization, managers must: build a commitment to learning generate ideas with impact generalize ideas with impact

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B2-16

How to Build a Learning Organization: Three Roles Managers Play

You can build a commitment to learning.


Instill an intellectual and emotional commitment to learning

You can work to generate ideas with impact.


Ideas that add value for customers , employees, and shareholders

You can work to generalize ideas with impact.


Reduce barriers to learning among employees and within your organization. Create climate that reduces conflict, increases communication, promotes teamwork, rewards risk-taking, reduces fear of failure, and increase communication.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e 2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 49