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1 - Mendel’s Laws of
Parts of a Flower
The Male Parts of a The Female Parts of a
Flower Flower
Fertilization in Plants
Self-Pollination: male & female gametes come
from the same plant
Cross Pollination: male & female gametes
come from different plants
Mendel’s Crosses
Hybrid: offspring of parents that have different forms (alleles)
of a trait
The Rule of Dominance
7 Traits studied by Mendel
Phenotype vs. Genotype
Genotype: the combination of alleles an
organism has (TT, Tt, tt…)
 Homozygous: if the 2 alleles for a trait are the
Homozygous dominant (TT)
Homozygous recessive (tt)
 Heterozygous: if the 2 alleles for a trait are
different (Tt)
Phenotype: the actual characteristic (tall,
short, ….)
Punnett Square: used to determine the
expected proportions of possible
genotypes of the offspring
Mendel’s Conclusions
The Rule of Unit factors: each organism has 2
factors (alleles) that control each of its trait.
The Rule of Dominance: The dominant allele
expresses itself over the recessive allele. The
recessive allele only expresses itself when 2
copies of the allele are present
The law of segregation: when gametes are
produced, each gamete receives one of the 2