Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Mission Design Requirements

Deliver 5kg item to ISS 24 hour launch lead time Vehicle must be launched from below or inside carrier aircraft Propellants cannot be toxic. Upper stage must have good orbital insertion accuracy Vehicle must use off-the-shelf rocket motors First priority is to deliver takeoff mass to aircraft team.

Desirable Booster Characteristics


Minimum takeoff mass Restart-capable upper stage motor Simple and reliable upper-stage motor High Isp upper stage motor Minimum number of stages One rocket motor per stage Minimize G-Forces seen by payload

Created Excel Spreadsheet

Preliminary Booster Calculations

Database of rocket motors from trade studies Losses neglected:


Gravity Drag

Calculates:
DV produced by each stage upper stage structural mass booster takeoff mass Max G-Force during launch

Input Variables:
Stage Specifications Payload Mass

Booster Calculator
mp1 3923 me1 416 mp2 1286 me2 98 mp3 me3 mpl 310 80.20679 T1 40 170000 T2 80000 T3 33300 Isp1 260 Isp2 293 Isp3 330 mb01 m01 mb02 m02 mb03 m03 dv1 dv2 dv3 delta v 2230.207 6153.207 528.2068 1814.207 120.2068 430.2068 2011.145 3093.411 3832.083 8936.64 R1 R2 R3 2.816297 4.495047 7.890381 1st Stage: ATK Orion 50XL 2nd Stage: ATK Star 31 3rd Stage: SpaceX Kestrel 2 (Would like lighter, slightly smaller engine with similar ISP, but sufficient) (Pump fed would reduce weight of upper stage structure, but add compexity) Need very light structure for 2nd stage (85kg including 52kg engine) Total system mass at launch: 6153.207 kg

Stage 3 G-Forces reduced by throttling G-Force at Stage Burnout 1 7.770246 2 15.43892 3 28.2388 Adding more liquid fuel reduces max g-forces Increasing payload mass reduces max g-forces Stage 1 burnout g-force closer to 5.5g

SpaceX tanks: 3385kg of propellant Empty stage 2: 360kg Our estimated stage 2 mass: 28.20679 kg Not including engine

Propellant mass fraction of 3nd stage 0.794451 (not ideal because motor slightly oversized, pressure fed tanks heavy) (SpaceX gets 0.91 with same engine on Falcon 1)

Propellant Density (kg/m3) Kerosene LOX 806 1140

Biggest problem for second stage is lack of small liquid motors of high Isp in production) Upcoming LOX-Methane motors hold biggest potential by boosing Isp to 350 Given current limitations, desired change would be to get increased payload requirements, to allow bigger 1st stage) We get lower launch mass with solid upper stage, but need liquid for ISS maneuver due to restart requirements.

Oxidizer to fuel ratio for 2nd stage: Mass of liquid oxygen: Mass of Kerosene: 217.4627 kg 92.53731 kg

2.35

Volume of tanks: Helium m3 LOX 0.190757 m3 Kerosene 0.114811 m3

Tank pressure: 1.17 Mpa Total Tank Mass: 4.875 kg Helium 1 kg composite LOX 2.718284 kg alloy/composite Kerosene 1.156716 kg composite Remaining 3rd stage mass budget 23.33179 kg

Must study anti-slosh baffles for LOX tank, as SpaceX had issue with propellant sloshing with 2nd Falcon I launch.

Tank material for LOX-Kerosene: Aluminum-Lithium Al 2135

Assumes 1 spherical tank Tank Radius Helium m LOX 0.357109 m Kerosene 0.30151 m

Solid Rocket Motors


trade study
Star 26B Thiokol 261 Star 26C Thiokol 264 Star 30E Thiokol 667 Star 37FM Thiokol 1147 Star 48B Thiokol 2137 Star 48Bs Thiokol 2134 Star 48A s Thiokol 2574 Star 31 Thiokol 1384 Star 63D Thiokol 3499 Star 63F Thiokol 4590 Perigee Orbit Transfer Motor Fourth Academy 635 4 Star 75 Thiokol 8068 MIHT Russian 6000 SR-19 Aerojet 7032 Zefiro 9 Fiat-Avio 11100 Castor 4BXLhiokol T 11482 Algol 3A United Technologies 14732 MIHT-2 Russian 13000 RSA 3-2 South Africa 10971 Castor 4AXL Thiokol 14851 LK 1 IAI 13990 Pegasus Orion 50XL ATK 4350 23 32 45 81 126 124 144 98 248 326 496 565 1000 795 1000 1513 2030 1500 1771 1723 1240 420 272 272 291 290 286 286 283 294 283 297 280 288 220 288 294 267 259 280 284 269 272 289 0.66 0.66 64,731 63,389 182,216 311,041 591,142 578,401 693,030 380,883 921,828 1,277,319 34.6 35 35.4 47.9 66 77.109 77.109 80 84.7 104.6 222.8 242.8 245.2 267.7 313 429 464.7 490.3 519 599.8 774 196.4 0.91 0.88 0.932 0.929 0.939 0.942 0.929 0.929 0.929 0.929 0.93

0.93 1.25 1.24 1.24 0.76 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.91 2,174,539 1.5 1.33 1.9 1.02 1.14 1.55 1.3 1.02 1.35 1.28

0.868

0.904

Liquid Rocket Motors


2 separated tanks Can be stopped or restarted High specific impulse 3 types RP-1 widely used for first stages such as Saturn V and Atlas V
- Temperature of Combustion: 3,670 deg K. - Isp (sl): 300. - Fuel Density: 0.806 g/cc. - Fuel Freezing Point: -73 deg C. - Fuel Boiling Point: 147 deg C - Oxidiser Density: 1.140 g/cc. - Oxidiser Freezing Point: -219 deg C. - Oxidiser Boiling Point: -183 deg C.

Upper Stage Motors


Desired variable thrust, engine restart capability Compared hybrid and liquid rocket motors
Hybrids quickly eliminated due to lower Isp, high structural mass, and poor commercial availability

For system simplicity/reliability, pressure-fed liquid motor deemed desirable. Results of liquid motor trade study led to:
SpaceX Kestrel 2 upper stage rocket motor Currently used as upper stage for SpaceX Falcon I booster Pressure-fed LOX-RP1 rocket motor 52kg motor and nozzle Isp of 330s Flight-proven design Currently in serial production

Rocket Motor Database


Upper Stage liquid motors (3rd stage) Motor Fuel Country HM10 Lox-LH2 France RD-161P H202-Kerosene Russia LR101-11 Lox-Kerosene USA Kestrel 2 Lox-Kerosene USA Lunar ATK Lox-Methane USA XR-5M15 Lox-Methane USA S5.92 N204-UDMH Russia S5.98M N204-UDMH Russia RD-680 N204-UDMH Ukraine XLR-132 N204-MMH USA Thrust 61.8kN 24.5kN 5.3kN 33.3kN 16.7kN 35.7kN 19.6kN 19.6kN 5.6kN 16.7kN Isp Engine Mass 443 145kg 319 105kg 246 22kg 330 52kg 355 30kg 355 50kg 327 75kg 326 95kg 320 30kg 328 54kg Empty 19.6kN 52.0kN 47.9kN 35.4kN 27.0kN 36.0kN 118.2kN 43.5kN 31.5kN 286 298 290 291 292 287 290 260 290 7 118 81 45 38 108 345 63 71 Pressure source pump pump pump Pressure Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump Pump Propellant 72 1312 1066 622 505 770 3370 558 884 Propellant Mass Fraction Very cryogenic Non-cryogenic Cryogenic oxidizer Cryogenic oxidizer Cryogenic propellant and oxidizer Cryogenic propellant and oxidizer Hypergolic--toxic propellants Hypergolic--toxic propellants Hypergolic--toxic propellants Hypergolic--toxic propellants

1.67m nozzle diameter, Ox In Development for lunar In Development for lunar

Out of production

Upper Stage solid motors (2nd Stage) Star 17 solid USA M-V-4 solid Japan Star 37FM solid USA Star 30E solid USA Star 30BP solid USA Orion 38 solid USA Orion 50 solid USA Star 37 solid USA Star 37XFPsolid USA 1st stage solid motors ATK Orion 50XL Fiat-Avio Zefiro 9 Nissan M-3B-J MIHT-3 ATK Star 48B Nissan M-129A ATK Star 31 TX-354-3 Nissan M34 Nissan M33-20-4 ATK Castor 1 X-259 Aerotek M56A-1

0.881 0.917483 0.929 0.932 0.931 0.876993 0.907133 0.898551 0.925654

Diameter: 0.933m, 1.676m long, 63s burn

Diameter 0.66m, 0.84m long Diameter 0.93m, 1.52m long

USA Italy Japan Russia USA Japan USA USA/Japan Japan USA USA USA USA

170kN 300kN 132kN 245.2kN 66.0kN 77.5kN 80kN 258.9kN 294.2kN 268.6kN 237.2kN 74.0kN 228.5kN

260 260 260 255 255 260 262 262 264 247 260 250 260

416 1000 300 1000 126 360 98 695 1000 535 664 300 466

3923 10100 3300 5000 2011 1840 1286 3729 11000 3317 3692 1100 4704

0.904125 0.90991 0.916667 0.833333 0.941039 0.836364 0.929191 0.842902 0.916667 0.861111 0.847567 0.785714 0.909865

Diameter: 1.28m, 3.11m long, 69.8s burn, +- 5 degree vector control, 33.86 exp In development--not yet in production Diameter: 1.245m, TE-M-711, 84s burn

Diameter: 0.762m, TE-M-762, Antares III, 2.9m long, including nozzle, 46s burn,

Out of production

Booster Design
3 stage Booster
1st stage: ATK Orion 50XL (Solid) 2nd stage: ATK Star 31 (Solid) 3rd stage: SpaceX Kestrel 2 (LOX-RP1 liquid)

Booster Design
3rd Stage SpaceX Kestrel 2 Fairing 2nd Stage ATK Star31 1st Stage ATK Orion50XL

Interstages

Stage Specifications
Stage 1 Rocket Motor Propellant ATK Orion 50XL Solid Stage 2 ATK Star 31 Solid Stage 3 SpaceX Kestrel 2 LOX-RP1 Liquid

Empty Mass
Propellant Mass Specific Impulse Thrust Burn Time

416kg
3923kg 260s 170kN 69.8s

98kg
1286kg 293s 80kN 46s

84kg
350kg 330s 33.3kN 34s

Comparison to Pegasus
AirLaunch 1 stage maneuver Takeoff Mass Zero-velocity gravity 6,298kg PegasusXL Winged pull-up 23,130kg

Carrier Aircraft
Aircraft Mounting Payload to LEO

C-17
Internal Cargo Bay 150kg (1)

Lockheed L-1011
External Wing Pylon 443kg

Diameter
Length Upper Stage

1.7m
12.5m Pressure-fed liquid

1.27m
17.6m Solid+HAPS System (2)

(1) Payload for AirLaunch mission is 120kg fuel and 30kg satellite (2) Monopropellant hydrazine thruster for upper stage trajectory error correction

Comparison to Pegasus

Pegasus

AirLaunch

Gravity Turn Simulations:

Used Joe Muellers Matlab code to simulate gravity turn Parameters that can be varied in code:
Flight Path Angle (FPA) Height at which ignition 3 starts Mass of Stage 3 Propellant

Launch Flight Path Angle: 87.97 Deg.

Trials 1 2 3
Targeted ISS Orbital elements

System mass 6278 kg 6293 kg 6298 kg

Eccentricity 0.00918 0.00183 0.00093 0.00053

Perigee Altitude 240.42 km 322.42 km 330.46 km 334 km

Apogee Altitude 363.12 km 346.96 km 342.84 km 341 km

Launch Vehicle (LV) initial launch conditions:


Launch Vehicle (LV)

C-17 carrier aircraft

LV initial launch conditions: t = 0 seconds V 0 m/s H 12 km FPA 88


FPA

Launch trajectory:
Simulations produced the following direct launch trajectory to reach ISS:
Targeted ISS perigee altitude of 334 km

3D Orbit of Payload:
Matlab simulation produced the following orbit:
Payloads Low Earth Orbit Inclination: 51

Detailed orbit simulations:


Satellite Tool Kit (STK) orbit simulations:

STK simulation:
Used STK to simulate orbit of payload relative to ISS Apoapsis and Periapsis visible Enjoy the excellent video