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CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop

for the African Region

Building an Inventory Management System Pretoria, South Africa

18-22 September 2006

Michael Gillenwater

What is an GHG Inventory Program for?

Meet international obligations and expectations Inform international, national, & local policy making Enhance credibility of national climate policies through timely, transparent, and effective analysis & communication Foster consistent estimation approaches across government & private sector programs Respond to requests for information Champion for high quality & objective inventory information

What is quality?
Transparency Completeness Comparability Consistency Accuracy Transparency is the most fundamental. If you do not document, then there is no way to demonstrate any of the other principles have been met.

Who cares?
A wide audience of stakeholders...
Decision makers & policy advisors International climate change community Provincial & local agencies The public & interest groups Businesses Scientists

National government
Are national inventories verifiable? What are current & projected emissions and removals from key industries? What are the effects of existing or planned policies and measures (including policies that aggravate emissions)? Is there consensus among government agencies and key stakeholders on our emission estimates? What are the relationships between reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental pollutants?

International community
What is the your countrys contribution to global emissions and removals? Are your GHG estimates credible and transparent? Is your country meeting its UNFCCC obligations?

Businesses & NGOs

How do we quantify and get credit for activities that reduce emissions or sequester carbon? What activities, industries, companies, or policies have been responsible for significant increases or decreases in GHG emissions or removals?

What are the priorities for research and measurement? What are the scientific uncertainties in the emission and sink estimates?

Research & international scientific community Trading and projects

Domestic emission reduction programs

LU/LUCF (Sinks policies)

Inventory Program
Negotiations & IPCC Corporate, regional, & other inventories

Interest groups & the public

Emission projections, climate & economic modeling

Inventory management systems should...

Ensure inventory processes are in compliance with COP decisions (i.e., Non-Annex I Party National Communications) Define and apply appropriate procedures for collecting, processing, communicating, and archiving inventory data & information Coordinate with relevant ministries, agencies, and other organizations Provide inventory reports regularly Ensure the quality of inventory data


Inventory management system

1. Inventory planning 2. Inventory preparation 3. Inventory management


Inventory planning
Establish national inventory agency Assign responsibilities for inventory preparation and management Develop schedule Make arrangements to collect data from statistical agencies, companies, industry associations, etc. Create QA/QC plan Define formal approval process within government Develop review processes Integrate continuous improvement


Example: U.S. Inventory Schedule

Oct - Nov April - September Mid October Late December April 15th Nov - Dec Jan - Feb

Gather data and prepare initial estimates

Prepare draft report

Respond to interagency comments Release for public comment

Incorporate public comments Submit Inventory to UN

Expert and interagency review


Inventory preparation
Identify key categories Select methods and emission factors (e.g., GPG decision trees) Collect activity data Manage recalculations Implement QA/QC plan
Basic checks should be completed on entire inventory (Tier 1) (see GPG Ch. 8) More in-depth investigations into key sources (Tier 2)



Key categories
A key category has a significant influence on a countrys total inventory in terms of level or trend in emissions (GPG, Ch.7) A key category may also be determined through a qualitative assessment. A key category is one that is prioritized within the national inventory system In general, countries should focus on key categories for resources and improvements


Inventory management
Implement inventory review processes (e.g., expert review, public review) Obtain formal approval of final results and report within government Submit report to UNFCCC Make inventory information available to stakeholders and respond to information requests Archive all documentation and results Continuous improvement feedback


Uncertainty analysis is a subjective exercise, as it relies to a large extent on expert judgment Therefore, it is not a valid basis to compare inventories between countries Uncertainty analysis should be used as a way to investigate the quality of your inventory data and identify ways to improve data quality You achieve by communicating with data suppliers (e.g., statistical agencies)

Uncertainty investigations should be integrated within your QA/QC plan!


IPCC Guidelines
Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines IPCC Good Practice Guidance IPCC LULUCF GPG New 2006 IPCC Guidelines

UNFCCC reporting guidelines IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB) IPCC software
NCSP booklet on "Managing the GHG inventories process (March 2005)


Other resources
Inventory reports from other Parties UNFCCC website/GHG Data Inventory related reports from other Parties

GHG Inventory Experts Network


Closing remarks
A greenhouse gas inventory is more than just a report. It should be viewed as an broader analytical program. A cookbook approach to developing a GHG inventory is not practical. There will always be a large and essential need for expert judgment at all levels of the process. A well constructed inventory should include enough documentation to allow readers to understand the underlying assumptions and to reconstruct the calculations.


Please feel free to email me in the future: Michael Gillenwater

Thank you


Collect data on transportation fuel combustion, including fuel consumed by jets and sailing vessels travelling internationally.


The DoD maintains data on fuel consumption for the military. Data is usually acquired via communications with each branch.

Bureau of the Census, Dept. of Commerce

Federal Highway Administration Center for Transportation Analysis, ORNL, Dept. of Energy


Department of Defense

Bureau of Economic Analysis, Dept. of Commerce

Mobile Combustion

Federal Aviation Administration

Flow of Energy Data

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Dept. of Transportation

Compile data on vehicle numbers and types and provide estimates for domestic transportation fuel consumption.

International Bunker Fuels

Energy Use

The EIA collects national and worldwide fuel production and consumption data for all energyrelated activities, including stationary combustion.

EIA, Dept. of Energy

The EIA publishes a variety of monthly and annual reports and maintains databases which are accessible via the Web.



Mining Companies

Coal Mining

Provide mine-specific historical information about methane gasrecovery and gas usage.

Petroleum and Natural Gas

State Petroleum and Natural Gas Agencies Minerals Management Service, Dept. of Interior US EPA, National Risk Research Management Research Laboratory Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry Associations, Trade Groups, and Review Panels Industry Journals

Mine Safety and Health Administration

Supply information about mine-specific ventialtion systems and gas sales data.

Provide information about natural gas and petroleum industries, including production, infrastructure statistics, and consumption.


Emission Inventory Basics

An emission inventory is an accounting of the amount of air pollutants discharged into the atmosphere. It is generally characterized by the following factors: The chemical or physical identity of the pollutants included The geographic area covered The institutional entities covered The time period over which emissions are estimated The types of activities that cause emissions


Inventory Agency Responsibilities

A single national entity to be responsible for the overall inventory Arrangements with collaborating entities that contribute data, research, estimate emissions or provide expert reviews Define legal authority to collect and disseminate data necessary for the preparation of the inventory Ensure inventory processes are in compliance with COP decisions Define and apply procedures for collecting data, preparing inventory, communicating results, submitting report, and archiving Liaise among government departments, national agencies, Ensure the implementation of QA/QC


Develop high quality inventory at regular intervals (e.g., annually, every 2-4 years, etc). Resources are focused on the most significant emission sources in the country


Atmospheric Concentrations
370 350 330


Keeling and Whorf, 1999 Mauna Loa, Hawaii

1,700 1,500

Etheridge, Pearman, and Fraiser, 1994. Law Dome ice core.

Kalil and Rasmussen, 1994. Record from six globally distributed locations.


310 290 270 1740

Neftel, et al., 1994. Siple Station ice core

1890 1940 1990

1,300 1,100 900 700 1830







4 3



2 1
Sturges et al., Dome Concordia, 2000

Source: CDIAC

0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000