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Water Supply Network System: Theory

Urban Infrastructure Planning and Management (CE-634) Prepared by: ANKITKUMAR MEHTA M. Tech Urban Planning 2nd Sem Faculty Advisor: Dr. K. A. Chauhan

Graduate Report: 2013


P.G. URBAN PLANNING Civil Engineering Department, M.Tech. (Urban Planning)

Contents:
INTRODUCTION
SOURCES OF WATER
SURFACE SOURCE GROUND WATER SOURCE

WATER DEMAND AND QUANTITY OF URBAN WATER SUPPLY


QUALITY OF WATER DISTRIBUTION OF WATER
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
WATER TREATMENT PROCESS NORMS OF WATER SUPPLY

PRESENT SCENARIO OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK OF SURAT CITY REFERENCES

Introduction:
Water supply system in urban area should be developed in a proper way to meet the demand and at the same time, quality of water should also be maintained with in standard prescribed limits.

Thus the quality of water and the distributions are the important issues for urban water supply system.
Provision of an adequate quantity of water has been a matter of concern since the beginning of civilization. Even in ancient cities, local supplies were often inadequate and aqueducts were built to convey water from distant sources. The primary objective of water supply system is to take water from the best available source and to subject it to processing which will ensure water of good quality, free from unpleasant taste or odour and containing nothing which might be determined to health, and to distribute it top meet the requirement of the town or the city.

Any public water supply scheme should meet the following requirements: Ensured quality of water supply for its intended use like drinking or industrial use. Ensured sufficient quantity of supply. Ensured convenient and easy accessibility of water supply distribution. Ensured economic and financial viability of water supply product such that the capital and recurring cost falls within the affordable limits of the consumers of the system.

SOURCES OF WATER:
Surface Source:

Surface water is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation and sub-surface seepage.

Ground Water Source: Sub-Surface water, or groundwater, is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. Sometimes it is useful to make a distinction between subsurface water that is closely associated with surface water and deep sub-surface water in an aquifer.

Surface Sources:
Storage Reservoir
Investigation for Reservoir Planning

Engineering Surveys Geological Investigations Hydrological Investigation Calculation of reservoir capacity for a specified yield from the inflow.

INTAKES: Intakes are classified under three heads as under:

INTAKES:

River Intakes

INTAKES:

Reservoir Intakes for earth dams

Ground Water Source:


Wells:

Types of Aquifers:
1. Unconfined Aquifer 2. Confined Aquifer (Artesian Aquifer)

Other Sources of Under Ground Water:

Infiltration Gallery

Collection of Water from Springs

WATER DEMAND AND QUANTITY:


Factors affecting the quantity of water supply are:
Pollution and their characteristics Climatic conditions Size and type of city Standard of living Quality of water Pressure in the supply System of supply Rates of water Type of sewerage system Metering Fire-fighting requirement Number and type of industries Area under public gardens Policy regarding the metered supply

Potential sources of water supply


Age of community

Design period:
For water supply projects, a 30 years design period is assumed. Population forecast for this period take into consideration the potential of various sectors of urban economy and regional physical and economic linkages.

Per capita rate of water supply: The following per capita rates have been recommended as the minimum requirement for the design of public water supply in India:
For design population up to 5,000 90 lpcd per person
For design population up to 5,000 to 20,000 110 lpcd per person For design population up to 20,000 to 50,000 125 lpcd per person For design population above 50,000 to 2, 00,000 200 lpcd per person.

Rate of water supply: The consumption of water during the year is not always at a constant rate. There will be seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly variation.

QUALITY OF WATER:
Temperature: the drinking water should be cool. Desirable is bet. 10c to 15.6 c. Turbidity: turbidity is on account of suspended and colloidal inorganic matter such as silt, clay and mud particle. It should be between 2.5 -10 ppm. Odour and Taste: substance that produce and odour will almost invariably impart a taste as well as odour in drinking water may be due to the presence of microscopic organic matter or inorganic substance such as iron, sodium carbonates and sulphates.

Colour: for drinking purpose the colour of water should be preferably be less than 10ppm.
Alkalinity: alkalinity is mainly because of carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxides. It helps in the process of coagulation while purifying the water.

Hardness: hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates sulphates and chlorides of calcium carbonate.hardness of water should be between 75-115 ppm for domestic purpose.
pH value: pH value is a symbol of presence of positive hydrogen iron concentration in a sample of water. Water containing alkali will have OH ions, while water containing an acid will have more H+ ions. The ph value of water for domestic use shall be from 6.5 to 8.

DISTRIBUTION OF WATER:
Distribution of water is very much important in any water supply network. Water supply distribution is designed to satisfy the demand placed by different land use densities and fire-fighting requirements all the time. Piping systems, pumping stations, storage facilities fire hydrants, house connections, water meters constitute the entire distribution system. The distribution system normally costs 60 to 70% of the total cost.

Municipal water supply system consists of the following units:


Collection works Transmission works Purification works

Distribution works

Distribution system characteristics:


The configuration The configuration of the system is dictated primarily by the street pattern, topography, degree and type of development of the area and location of treatment and storage work.

Topography and distribution


If there is a change in topography, the distribution system is divided into zones. This will preclude extreme high pressure at lower area and maintain reasonable pressure at higher elevation. Grid and branching system The distribution system may be generally classified as grid system, branching system or some other combination. Pipe specification Distribution pipes shall not be less than 150 mm in diameter in the Indian metropolitan cities to meet fire-fighting requirements. In other urban areas the minimum pipe diameter shall be 100 mm. Pressure specification The minimum residual pressure at the time of two store houses,17 meters for three store house and 22 mt for four store houses.

Water Distribution system:


The spatial distribution of water consumption can be estimated by studying population demand and commercial and industrial water use patterns.
1. Dead-End System or Tree System:-

2. Grid Iron System or Reticulation System:-

3. Circular System or Ring System:-

4. Radial System:-

Water treatment processes:


Following are purposes of water treatment:
To remove colour, dissolved gas and murkiness of water. To remove objectionable tastes and odour. To remove the disease-producing micro-organisms so that water is safe for drinking purposes. To remove hardness of water.

TREATMENT PROCESSES ARE GENERALLY ADOPTED:


Screening Aeration Sedimentation With or Without Coagulants.

Filtration
Disinfections Miscellaneous Processes

Norms of water supply:


Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Water Supply (lpcd) Distribution network coverage (%) Total storage required (%) Storage capacity ratio Category Avg. 150 77 30 90 Min. 135 74 25 42 Max. 180 79 40 199

5
6 7

Total treatment req. (%)


Population dependent on House Service Connection Person per stand post/Hand Pump

80
590 127

75
36 54

100
78 227

PRESENT SCENARIO OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK OF SURAT CITY:


Area of Surat City: 326.52 sq.km Present Population of city: 45 Lacs

Population covered under piped network: 92%


Source of Water: River Tapi Total numbers of Water works: 4 Total numbers of Water Distribution Stations: 21 Total Installed capacity of all WTP: 1178 MLD Present Gross daily average water supply: 840 MLD Total Storage capacity of all UGSR & ESR: 653 ML Total Approx. length of all water supply pipe lines: 2750 km

Water Supply System - Year 2006 to 2013 (Present)


In the year 2006, city limit was extended from 112.27 sq.km. to 326.51 sq.km. area, merging 27 Grampanchayats & 8 Nagarpalikas into city. Due to the revised area & population scenario, preparation of Master Plan had to be revised. By fast-tracking the implementation of projects, SMC has achieved 46% increase in water supply from 580 in 2006 to 850 in 2012. SMC is now poised to achieve the goal of 100% coverage of extended area & population by 2013. Increase in Capacity Year 2006-2012 & Projected Increase by 2014
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Water Supply Project Intake Well (in MLD) Water Treatment Plants (in MLD) UGSR Capacity (in Lac lit) ESR Capacity (in Lac lit) Pipeline (in km) Year 2006 840 628 4450 150 2250 Year 2012 1463 1178 6247 286 2715 Year 2014 2033 1468 6809 709 3100 Up to Year 2041 2425 1678 726.7 124.3 3400

Capital Expenditure In Water Supply & Increase In Daily Water Supply:


Surat Municipal Corporation has spent more than Rs.993 Crores as capital expenditure on water supply infrastructure since year 1995 up to year 2011-12. Due to the project investments, area of Surat city prior to city limit extension in year 2006 was covered 99% population & 97% area under water supply pipeline network. Due to merger of new area into city, water supply coverage has been 82% in 2010. Gross daily average water supply increased from 180 MLD in year 1995 to about 850 MLD currently. SMC has planned to achieve the goal of 100% area & population coverage of Surat city under water supply network including newly merged area by the year 2014 with stage wise project implementation.

User Charges & Water Meter Policy:


As a part of achieving targeted reforms under JnNURM to recover full O&M charges as per the timeline, new user charges and water meter policy is effective since Dt.01-04-2008. User charges are reviewed and revised as per the requirement of the policy.
Residential & Religious purpose Water & Sewerage Charges: 2012-13
Charges per 1000 liters per family Sr.No. Connection Size (in inch)

For monthly consumption For monthly consumption up to 30000 liters greater than 30000 liters

1 2 3 4

3/4" 1.0" 1.5" 2.0" & above

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00

Non-Residential purpose Water & Sewerage Charges: 2012-13


TYPE (A) Sr. No. 1 2 3 (B) 1 2 3 4 5 PURPOSE OF USAGE Premises for Public institutional services like Bus, Railway, Gujarat Electricity Board, Surat Electricity Company, Banks. General(non water based ) Industries like power looms/ Diamond/jari -Kasab/Work shop Temporary water connection for non-commercial, individual construction purpose. For Halls and Vadi's used for social Functions. Charges Per 1000 Liters (in Rs.) 20.00 15.00 20.00 15.00 14.00 17.00 15.00 32.00

Properties like Dispensary, Hospital, Nursing Home, Maternity Home, Dispensary Chemist etc related with medical services,
Photo studios Dhobi Ghat Private swimming pools

6
7 8 9 10

Gymkhana and Sports Club


All Types of Restaurant and Canteens (inclusive of Tea /Snacks /Farsaan shops ) Properties like nursery, plantations activity used for commercial use Properties used for Residential use for Private/Limited company. Guest Houses.

32.00
20.00 25.00 20.00 27.00

TYPE (C)

Sr. No. 1 2 3

PURPOSE OF USAGE Soft Drinks/Soda manufacturing organizations. Ice Cream /Ice manufacturing organization. Cold storage Plant

Charges Per 1000 Liters (in Rs.) 27.00 27.00 27.00

4 5
6 7

Central Air condition plant. Cinema / Theatre


Film processing /sound studios/Film laboratory RCC/PCC Materials and marble Mosaic tiles manufacturing works.

27.00 27.00
27.00 27.00

Temporary water connection for commercial purpose constructions.


Temporary Water connection for Public Fair, Function, Exhibition All Types of Hotels - up to three - stars. Dyeing & Printing houses. (Except Pandesara GIDC) 4-star/5-star hotel Water park/Amusement park Commercial purpose /shops other than mentioned above. For Educational institutions For Residence purpose. Outside city area. For commercial purpose Outside city area. For Industrial purpose Outside city area.

27.00

9 10 (D) 1 2 3 (E) (F) (G) 1 1 1 2 3

27.00 27.00 27.00 35.00 27.00 12.00 8.00 15.00 30.00 36.00

Minimum user charges applicable for different purpose & size (above 0.5" size) shall be as follows.
Monthly Minimum User Charges (in Rs.) S.No. Connectio n Size (in inch) For area inside city For Residential & Religious purpose 120 180 450 900 1395 2250 3420 For area outside city

For Non-resi./ For Non-resi./ For Residential & comm. / industrial comm. / industrial Religious purpose purpose purpose 240 360 900 1800 2790 4500 6840 420 765 1680 3000 4560 6600 11400 840 1530 3360 6000 9120 13200 22800

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0.5" 3/4" 1.0" 1.5" 2.0" 2.5" 3"

8
9 10 11 12 13

4"
6" 8" 9" 10" 12"

6750
11250 18300 25200 33750 56250

13500
22500 36600 50400 67500 112500

22800
54000 87000 120000 150000 225000

45600
108000 174000 240000 300000 450000

REFERENCES:
Books:
Punamia B.C. and Jain Ashok K., Water Supply Engineering, (1999), Laxmi Publications PVT.LTD, New Delhi.

B.S. Raju ,Water supply and Waste water engineering, (2001),Tata Macgraw-Hill Publishing CO. LTD, New Delhi.
Deswal S.S. and Deswal S., Environmental Engineering, (2001), Dhanpatrai And CO. PVT. LTD., Delhi. Surat City Development Plan

Web Sites:
http://www.suratmuniciple.org

We believe users of water are the best managers of water