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Foundations of Education 2

Historical, Philosophical, Legal, Technical, and Economic Foundations

Historical Foundations

Ancient Civilizations
Early Education/Primitive Education among people was directed to ensuring survival of the group, clan, or tribe through training of the young in skills and arts necessary to maintain life. Early Civilizations The education among the people of ancient Asia was virtually a system of social stratification, and a division of classes corresponding the division of labor with hierarchy

Ancient Civilizations Chinese Civilization


Chinese education was aimed at selecting and training people for public service, thus it put an emphasis on the molding of a persons character and the inculcation of ethical and moral values.

Hindu Education
The educational system of the Hindus was in accordance with the specific class in the caste system to which an individual belonged.

Jewish Education The aim of education was ethical and religious. The education of the youth was an obligation of parents, and was intimately to associate with the performance of ritual observances with learning the Mosaic Law and the Talmud

Ancient Civilizations

Egyptian Civilization The Egyptians were polytheist people or worshippers of many gods. They considered their pharaoh as god and king. The Egyptians only studied subjects that could be applied to their daily lives. They were mentally reluctant and obstinate about furthering their education.

Ancient Civilizations
Greek Education
Ancient Greece was divided into poleis, small city-states

Ancient Civilizations
Spartans It was purely a military city-state that exercised totalitarianism over its subjects. The state claimed fullauthority over their subjects lives. The Spartans devoted their whole time and attention to the art of warfare Athenians Athens implemented a democratic and free society. Democracy is one of the lasting legacies of the Athenian world. Because of this the Athenians developed their potentials and talents to the fullest.

Ancient Civilizations
Sophist A new class of teachers arose. Believing that man was the measure of all things, they stressed on individual development. With this philosophy they were able to attract the wisdom loving Greek youth.

Ancient Civilizations

Roman Education
The aim of Roman education was utilitarian, not theory but application, not learning by practice. For these and more they were able to conquer most civilizations. The Romans did not only excel in warfare and politics but in fields of education and the sciences.

Ancient Civilizations
Early Roman Education-Education during these time was regarded being largely moral and diclipine was rigorous and severe. The mother trained her daughters to carryout household chores and religious duties Hellenized Rome- When the Romans finally conquered Greece

Ancient Civilizations
The Roman Educational System Elementary School- The school of the litterator, or teacher of letters. Grammar School- The aim of the school was to equip students with the mastery of expression in reading, writing, and speaking, Rhetorical School- prepared a young boy for public service. This was the predecessor of our modern colleges and universities

Ancient Civilizations

Roman Emperors
Vespian(A.D. 69-79) Trajan (A.D. 98-117) Hadraian (A.D. 117-138) Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161) Emperor Constantine (A.D. 306-337) Julian the Apostolate (A.D. 361-363) Gratian (A.D. 367-383) Theodosius (A.D. 383-395)

Ancient Civilizations
Influential Thinkers of Roman Education
Cicero His writings provided the ideal education for the middle ages
Quintillian He stressed on memory and used it as a motivation. He also used rewards instead of corporal punishment. He suggested the use of play and games

Medevial Education
Early Christian Education The primary aim of early Christian education was the moral regeneration of the individual. Christian education confined itself to the teachings of the training of converts, clergy and children because the church realized that these forms of society could only come about through the transformation of the individuals that make up a society. Monasticism It is regarded as the most perfect service to God and an effective means of personal sanctification.

Medevial Education
Scholasticism The proponents of scholasticism aimed to bring reason to the support of faith and strengthen religious life and the church through the development of intellectual power. Age of Feudalism Two careers were open to the sons of noblemen during feudalistic times. They can favor the church or chivalry

Medevial Education
Saracenic Education Due to its attractiveness to human nature and its satisfaction to human longings Islam prospered. All education began with religious education, the memorizing of Koran. It was a simple religion emphasizing a high degree of tolerance with faith

Modern Education
Renaissance was a revival or rebirth of learning, a belief of dignity of human beings, a renewed spirit of nationalism, an increase of trade among countries, a period of exploration. Books were also printed during this time.

Modern Education
HumanismStudia-humanitatis- studies of humanities A way of thought and a way of life concerned the realization of the fullest human career. Influential Characters: Vittorino de Feltre- established the most celebrated Humanist School The purpose of educaation was to educate the complete citizen Desiderius Eramus- )- he advocated the importance of studying the character of the child. He likewise believed that women should enjoy the same educational rights enjoyed by men

Modern Education
Reformation The Catholic Church held so much power. This power gave rise to corruption and other abuses. Martin Luther- he wrote 95 Theses where he attacked the ecclesiastical abuses Philip Melanchon- organized a state school system. Melachon obtained considerable success in making Reformation acceptable to intellectual as Luther did to the masses.

Modern Education
Reformation The Catholic Church held so much power. This power gave rise to corruption and other abuses. Martin Luther- he wrote 95 Theses where he attacked the ecclesiastical abuses Philip Melanchon- organized a state school system. Melachon obtained considerable success in making Reformation acceptable to intellectual as Luther did to the masses.

Modern Education
Rise Of Protestantism

The public at this time was increasingly becoming aware and angered by the excesses of the papacy.
John Calvin The theological doctrines of Calvinism emphasize the sovereignty of God in the bestowal of grace and that specifically includes election of predestination, limited atonement, total depravity, irresistibility of grace, and the perseverance of saints..

Modern Education
Catholic-Counter Reformation
Realizing that Protestants used education to further ends, the Catholic used education to win back dissenters.
The Aim of education of the Roman Catholic Education was religious moralism.

Modern Education
Catholic-Counter Reformation
In order to carry-out these ends the church authorized the establishment of several priestly orders that would serve as the educational and social arm of the church. 1. Jesuits- St. Ignatius of Loyola 2. Jansenist- Jean Duvegier de Haureme or Abbe de Saint-Cyran 3. Christian Brothers- Jean Baptiste de La Salle

Philippine Educational System


Pre-Spanish Period- The early Filipinos considered education as a way to preserve their culture and transmit this knowledge to future generations. Spanish Regime- Schools were established with the objective of rearing children to learn skills acquired by the youth in Spain. The educational system was under the control of the Roman Catholic Church.

Philippines Education
American Era- Education was a means by which people can be oriented toward a democratic way of life, they made education accessible to all. Commonwealth-

Japanese Occupation- Education was an instrument for Filipinos to embrace Japanese ideologies. It promoted vocational education and inspired people with the spirit of labor

Phil Education
American Era- Education was a means by which people can be oriented toward a democratic way of life, they made education accessible to all. Commonwealth-

Japanese Occupation- Education was an instrument for Filipinos to embrace Japanese ideologies. It promoted vocational education and inspired people with the spirit of labor

Phil Education
Post War/3rd Republic/Roxas
All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to the regulation of the State. The government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shall provid at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adult citizens.

Phil Education
Marcos Administration
The countrys educational systems adopted the acronym PLEDGES. PD no. 1081, Article XV Section 8 of the 1973 Constitution .All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific and

technological and vocational efficiency.


Batasang Pambansa Education Act of 1982

Phil Education
Aquino Administration
The Education department started as the Ministry of Education which was later changed to the Department of Education Culture and Sports DECS. The 1986 Constitution provides the present philosophy of Education as stated in Article XIV, Section 3. strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and provide vocational efficiency.

Phil Education
Ramos Administration
E.O. 337 May 17, 1996 Transferring the National Training for Technical Education and Staff Development (NTTESD) from the Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)

Phil Education
Arroyo Administration
Republic Act No. 9155 (August 11, 2001), otherwise known as Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001, renamed the DECS to the Department of Education (DepED),

What are the Implications of these in Our Present Educational Systems

Philosophical Foundations of Education

Legal Basis of Education

Legal Basis
Educational Act of 1982 (Batas Pambansa Blg. 232) Applies to both private and public schools in the entire educational system. Goals The act provides that the basic policy of the State is to establish and maintain a complete adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development as follows: Achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress; Assure the maximum participation of all people in the attainment and enjoyment of such growth; and Achieve and strengthen unity and consciousness and preserve, and develop and promote desirable cultural, moral, and spiritual values in a changing world.

Legal Basis
Article XIV of the 1987 Philippine Constitution The Department Of Education Culture and Sports is the principal agency of the Philippine Government which is responsible for education and manpower development The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make education accessible to all.

Legal Basis
Arroyo Administration
Republic Act No. 9155 (August 11, 2001), otherwise known as Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001, renamed the DECS to the Department of Education (DepED),

Phil Education

Magna Carta for Teachers R.A. 4670


Contract Probation, Tenure, Breach of Contract Due Process Academic Freedom Teachers as models Tort Liability of Negligence Loco Parentis

Phil Education

Students Rights and Responsibilities


Bill 4288 Suspension and Expulsion Search and Seizure Freedom of Expression

Phil Education

Rights of Schools
The States power over private educational institutions is limited to supervision and regulation and not control. Although the DECS may impose minimum requirements. Ownership and Administration of Schools

Phil Education

Rights of Parents
Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 parents have the right to organize themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for discussion of matters relating to school programs. They also have right to access any official record directly relating to children under parental responsibility.
Parents retain access to their childrens school records until the child reaches the age of 18. After which parents parties may gain access to only upon written authority from the student.

Phil Education

Rights of Parents
Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 parents have the right to organize themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for discussion of matters relating to school programs. They also have right to access any official record directly relating to children under parental responsibility.
Parents retain access to their childrens school records until the child reaches the age of 18. After which parents parties may gain access to only upon written authority from the student.

Phil Education

Other Legal Basis


R.A. 80- Office of Adult Education R.A. 6655- Free Secondary Public Education R.A. 7722- Commission on Higher Education R.A. 7796- Technical Education Skills Development Authority R.A. 7836- Board of Professional Teachers R.A. 7877- Anti- sexual Harassment act of 1995 E.O. 189- Placed all public school teachers under the supervision of DECS

Phil Education

Other Legal Basis


P.D. 603- classes for children with special needs

How important are these in ones profession?

Technological Foundations of Education

Role of Technology
Educational technology can benefit our country in enhancing education through providing assistance to students learning, teacher productivity and by making schools more effective instruments of change. In this age of technology, it is essential that we teach our students how to evaluate and analyze, how to think critically, how to synthesize apparently unrelated information, how to apply solutions, how to make decisions based on and incomplete data, how to communicate effectively with others and how to organize and locate information especially with the use of technology.

Economic Foundations of Education

Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cost Benefit Analysis is typically used by governments to evaluate the desirability of a given intervention. The aim is to gauge the efficiency of the intervention relative to the status quo. The costs and benefits of the impacts of an intervention are evaluated in terms of the public's willingness to pay for them (benefits) or willingness to pay to avoid them (costs).

CBA

Western Studies
No Ability Adjustment Males First Degree 15.0 12.5 Ability Adjustment

Masters
Doctorate Females

15.0
16.0

12.5
13.0

First Degree

20.5

18.0

CBA

Western Studies
Morris was able to calculate social rates-of-return to different subject disciplines studied at various postschool levels. For university degrees, returns were mostly higher in the case of arts and social science subjects than for engineering and science, due mainly to the higher costs of the latter. Part-time courses, such as for ONC (Ordinary National Certificate) and HNC (Higher National Certificate) had much higher returns (often around 20%) than full-time courses, due to the former having no income foregone. After alpha-coefficient (0.66) adjustment, marginal social returns to first degrees were around 10%. Returns to postgraduate-level education were generally low and sometimes negative.

CBA

Philippine Setting
Tan and Paqueo (1989), using a Mincerian function, found returns to education in the Philippines which were described as lower than the average for developing countries. Social rates-of-return averaged around 12.7% and were comparable among the three levels of education but private returns were significantly higher for primary than for higher levels of education: the former was calculated at 18.2% but dropped to 12.2% when primary pupils' income foregone was assumed to equal one-tenth of the average earnings of 19-year-olds. Where pupils failed to complete a cycle (e.g., primary, secondary), the returns were much lower. A Mincerian function approach gave a private return (average over all education) of only 8.1 %.