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Minor energy (head) losses

Loss of head due to sudden enlargement Loss of head due to sudden contraction Loss of head at the entrance of a pipe Loss of head at the exit of a pipe. Loss of head due to bend in pipe.

Loss of head due to sudden enlargement


As a result of sudden enlargement, liquid flows forming eddies at the corners.

Loss of head due to sudden contraction


It is due to the sudden enlargement which takes place after vena-contracta
The cross-sectional area of the stream tube becomes the minimum and less than that of the smaller pipe. This section of the stream tube is known as vena contracta

hc = (0.5V22/2gf)

At vena contracta, the velocity is maximum

Loss of head at the entrance of a pipe


There is sudden contraction to flow of liquid which results in loss of head The loss of head at the entrance to the pipe is therefore given by = and is known as entry loss.

Loss of head at the exit of a pipe


Hexit = V2 / 2g

Loss of head due to bend in pipe


Loss due to change in velocity and the direction of flow Hb = kV2/ 2g where, V = velocity of flow

Laws for fluid friction


Frictional resistance is independent of pressure. Frictional resistance is proportional to velocity of fluid. Frictional resistance is proportional wetted surface area. Frictional resistance is independent of nature of surface in contact. In streamline flow, friction varies greatly with temperature.

If velocity of fluid is below critical velocity, flow is viscous flow

Frictional resistance for turbulent flow


Proportional to v2 Proportional to the density of fluid Proportional to the area of surface in contact Independent of pressure Dependent on the nature of the surface in contact.

Hydraulic gradient
Imaginary line drawn above the axis of pipe so that at vertical distance from any point to the axis represents the pressure head at that point

Total energy line


The sum of potential head, pressure head and velocity head is known as total head. If a line joining the total heads at various points, the line so obtained is called total energy line.

Power transmitted through pipes


Power transmitted through pipe depends upon: 1: weight of liquid 2: total head available at the end of pipe. Then head available at outlet of the pipe = Total head at inlet Loss of head due to friction = H - hf

Power transmitted through pipes


= (weight of liquid flowing per sec) X (head at outlet) = (w * volume of liquid flowing per sec) X (head at outlet) = (w * area * velocity of liquid) X (head at outlet)

Efficiency of transmission = ( Power at outlet) / (Power at inlet)


= W(H-hf) / WH = (H- hf)

Water hammer

Water hammer
It's also called hydraulic shock. Water hammer commonly occurs when a valve closes suddenly at an end of a pipeline system, and a pressure wave propagates in the pipe. Damage to the pipe due to sudden rise in pressure. The increase in pressure depends upon velocity of flow, speed at which valve is closed, length of pipe, material of pipe.

Pipes in series

Pipes in series
Q = Q1= Q2= Q3 Q = A1V1= A2V2 hL= hL1+ hL2+ hL3