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Ayush Arora PG 1 st Year


Composition Function

Bone Histology
Bone cells Bone formation

Bone resorption
Bone Remodeling

Alveolar bone

Development of alveolar process

Structure of alveolar bone Internal reconstruction of alveolar bone

Clinical Considerations
Therapeutic Considerations

Bone is a living tissue, which makes up the body skeleton and is one of the

hardest structure of the animal body. (Orbans oral histology and embryology 12th edition chapter 8)
Systemically, bone physiology is affected by hormones. Locally, it is affected by mechanical forces, growth factors and cytokines. Evidences support that bone growth is also regulated by CNS Bone resist compressive forces most and tensile forces least; bone fracture

occurs because of tensile or slicing stresses.


Classification based on shape

Long bones

Short bones

Flat bones

Irregular bones

Sesamoid bones

2. Classification based on development

Endochondral bones

Intramembranous bones

3. Based on their microscopic structure

Mature bone

Immature bone

Compact bone

Cancellous bone






Hydroxyapatite Collagen 28% Noncollagenous proteins 5%

Supportive Protective

Reservoir of minerals Blood cell formation

All bones

Outer compact bone

Central medullary cavity

The medullary cavity is filled with yellow or red bone marrow It is interrupted in extremities of long bones bony trabeculae (cancellous, spongy bone

Adult bone whether compact or cancellous are same

histologically as they have microscopic layers or lamella




Basic metabolic unit of bone is Osteon or Haversian system It is lined by single layer of bone cells and houses capillary Two haversians canals are connected through Volkmann

canal which also contain blood vessels

Sorrounding the outer aspect of every compact bone is

connective tissue membrane, the PERIOSTEUM which has two layers-

Outer layer or fibrous layer Contain dense irregular connective tissue

Inner Layer next to the bone surface

Consist of bone cells, their precursors and a rich micro vascular supply

The internal surface of compact and cancellous bone are covered by

endosteum This layer is not well demarcated and consists of loose connective tissue containing osteogenic cells and that physically separates the bone surface from the marrow with in.

Osteogenic cells


Form and maintain bone

Resorb bone





Bone lining cells

Mononucleated cell

synthesize both collagenous and non-collagenous protein

Uncalcified matrix


Act as scaffold for deposition of inorganic portion of bone

Osteoblasts have high level of alkaline phosphatase which cleaves

organic phosphate and thus iniate the deposition of minerals

Osteoblasts also secretes no. of cytokines and growth factors which

helps in regulating cellular function and growth formation.

It includes BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-B, IGF-I, IGF-II, platelet derived

growth factor and fibroblastic growth factor.

Combination of IGF-I, TGF-B and platelet derived growth factor increase

rapidity of bone formation and bone repair

Are used to enhance osseous integration after placing Implants

Osteoblasts that gets trapped in the matrix they secrete

(mineralized or unmineralized) Osteocytes

Rate of bone formation depends on no. of Osteocytes. Osteocytic lacunae space occupied by Osteocytes in


They have narrow extensions or canaliculi through which

they interact with adjacent Osteocytes, bone lining cells and Osteoblasts

They also secretes matrix proteins

In light microscopy multinucleated large cells Cytochemical reaction they have tartar resistant acid phosphatase. Scanning electron microscopy osteoclasts present in hollowed out

depressions howships lacunae

Electron microscopy - diagram

Osteoclasts binds to bone surface by

Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin

Has Arginin-Glycine-Aspartic acid

Causes osteoclast adhesion and formation of sealing zone

Osteoclast causes resorption of bone as it is rich in

Acid Phosphatase and other Lysosomal enzymes and due to the presence of proton pump

Osteoclast attaches to mineralized surface of bone

Creation of sealed acidic environment

Proton pump Demineralized bone Expose organic matrix Enzyme degrade exposed matrix Endocytosis at the ruffles border of organic degradation products Degraded products through transport vesicles are released along membrane opposite to ruffled border