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EE-283

Electrical Drives and Instrumentation


By
Dr. Mohammed Moshiul Hoque
DC Generator
Generator Principle
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 2
Machine
Mechanical
energy
Electrical
energy
Faradays Laws of
Electromagnetic
Induction
Two Essential Conditions
A magnetic filed (flux)
A Conductor must be move such a way so that
it cut the flux.
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Simple Loop Generator
Construction
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Copper coil: ABCD
Slip-ring
Slip-ring
Brushes
(carbon/copper)
Slip-ring: The function is
To collect the current
Induced in the coil and
To convey it to the external
Load resistance (R)
Armature: The rotating
coil.
Field Magnets: Magnets
Simple Loop Generator
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Slip-ring
Slip-ring
Brushes
(carbon/copper)
Working Principle
Assumption: coil is rotating in clockwise direction
When the coil is moving in the magnetic filed, the flux
linkage with it changes due to the successive position
changes.
Induced emf
dt
d
N e
|
=
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Working Principle
The amount of voltage generated depends
on
(1) the strength of the magnetic field
(2) the angle at which the conductor cuts the
magnetic field
(3) the speed at which the conductor is moved
(4) the length of the conductor within the
magnetic field.
Direction of Induced emf
The Polarity of the voltage
depends on
(i) Direction of the magnetic
lines of flux
(ii) Direction of movement of
the conductor.
To determine the direction of
current in a given situation,
-LEFT-HAND RULE FOR
GENERATORS is used.
Working Principle
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At pos 1, 0
0
: the flux
linkage is Maximum but
the rate of change
Of flux is minimum.
Emf=0

At pos 3, 90
0
: the rate of
Change of flux (emf)
Increases, till position 3 is
Reached. Flux linkage is
Minimum but rate of change
Of flux is maximum.
Emf=maximum

Working Principle
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At pos 3 TO 5, 90
0
~180
0
:
the flux linkage with the
Coil gradually increases
But the the rate of change
Of flux is decreases.
Emf= decreases gradually
At pos 5, emf=0.

Pos1: emf=0/minimum
Pos3: emf=maximum
Pos5: emf=0/minimum
The direction of this induced emf can be found by apply
the Flemings RHR (A-B & C-D)
Direction: ABMLCD
Working Principle
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At pos 5 TO 9, 180
0
~360
0
:
the variations in the
magnitude of emf are
similar to those in the first
half cycle.
Pos7: emf= maximum
Pos1: emf=0/minimum.

Direction: reverse
D-C and B-A
DCLMBA
** The current reverses its direction
after every Half cycle. This type of
periodic reversals is Known as the
alternating current (AC)
How Can converted these AC to DC?
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 14
Slip-rings are replaced
by Split-rings
Split-ring
Split-ring
How Can converted these AC to DC?
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The split-rings are made
out of a conducting
cylinder Which is cut into
two halves/Segments
insulated from each
Other by a thin sheet of
Mica/some insulating
materials.
The coil ends are
joined to these segments
on which rest the
carbon/copper Brushes.
How Can converted these AC to DC?
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 16
1
st
cycle, the current flows
along ABMLCD brush#1 in
contact with segment a
+ve end of the supply

2
nd
half cycle, direction is
reversed
At the same time, the positions
Of the segments (a & b) have
also reversed.
How Can converted these AC to DC?
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 17
Brush#1 comes in touch with that
Segment which is +ve (Segment b)
Current in the R again flows from M to L

The current is unidirectional but not continuous like pure DC (Rectified AC)
It is due to the rectifying action of the split-rings (commutator) that it becomes
Unidirectional in the external circuit.
Pulsating DC
Parts of the Generator
1. Magnetic Frame/Yoke
2. Pole-cores and Pole Shoes
3. Pole Coils or Field Coils
4. Armature Core
5. Armature Windings/Conductors
6. Commutator
7. Brushes and Bearings
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Yoke
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02 purposes:
1. It provides
mechanical
support for the
poles and acts
as a protecting
cover for the
whole machine
2. It carries the
magnetic flux
produced by the
poles.
Pole Cores/Poles Shoes
02 Purposes:
1. They spread out the flux
in the air gap and also,
being of larger cross-
section, reduce the
reluctance of the
magnetic path
2. They support the
exciting coils/field coils.

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Pole Coils
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Consists of copper
wire/strip, are former-
wound for the correct
Dimension.
When the current is passed through these coils, they electro-
magnetize the poles which produce the necessary flux that are cut
by the revolving armature conductors.
Armature Core
It houses the armature conductors or coils and causes them to rotate
and hence cut the magnetic flux of the field magnets.
To provide a path of very low reluctance to the flux through the
armature from a N-pole to S-pole.
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Armature Windings
Usually former-wound.
These are first wound in the form of flat rectangular coils and are
then pulled into their proper shape in a coil puller.
Various conductors of the coils are insulated from each other.
The conductor are placed in the armature slots which are lined
with tough insulating material.
This slot insulation is folded over above the armature conductors
placed in the slot and is secured in place by special hard
wooden/fiber wedges.
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Commutator
To facilitate collection
of current from the
armature conductors.
It rectifies/converts the
AC induced in the
armature conductors
into unidirectional
current in the external
load circuit.
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Commutator
It is of cylindrical
structure and is
built up of
wedge-shaped
segments of
high conductivity
hard-drawn/drop
forged copper.
Brushes and Bearings
To collect current from
commutator
Carbon/graphite made
Rectangular block.
Brushes are housed in
brush-holders usually of
the box-type variety.
Because of their reliability,
ball bearings are frequently
employed though for heavy
duties, roller bearings are
preferable.
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Field Excitation
When a dc voltage is applied to the field
windings of a dc generator, current flows
through the windings and sets up a steady
magnetic field. This is called FIELD
EXCITATION.
This excitation voltage can be produced by the
generator itself or it can be supplied by an
outside source, such as a battery.
Types of Generators
According to the way of field excitation:
1. Separately-excited
-filed magnets are energized from an
independent external source (dc current)
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A
DC
Types of Generators
2. Self-excited
-field magnets are energized by the current
produced by the generators themselves.
-due to the residual magnetism, there is always
present some flux in the poles.


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Phenomenon of Self Excitation
Residual Magnetism: Self-excitation is possible only if the
field pole pieces have retained a slight amount of permanent
magnetism
When the generator starts rotating, the weak residual
magnetism causes a small voltage to be generated in the
armature.
This small voltage applied to the field coils causes a small field
current.
Although small, this field current strengthens the magnetic
field and allows the armature to generate a higher voltage.
The higher voltage increases the field strength, and so on. This
process continues until the output voltage reaches the rated
output of the generator.
Types of Generators
Types of self-excited
generators
1. Shunt wound
-filed windings are
connected across/in
parallel with the
armature conductors
-have the full voltage of the
generator applied
across them
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 33
A
I
a
= I + I
sh
I = I
a
-I
sh
Types of Generators
2. Series wound
-field windings are connected
in series with the armature
conductors.
-They carry the full load
current, they consist of
relatively few turns of thick
wire/strips.
-Such generators are rarely
used except for special
purpose (as boosters)

3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 34
I
a
= I

A
Types of Generators
3. Compound wound:
-combination of a few series and a few shunt windings
and can be either short-shunt or long-shunt.
-the shunt field is stronger than the series field.

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A
A
Short-shunt
Long-shunt
Types of Generators
Commutatively Compounded: series aids the
shunt field
Differentially Compounded: series field opposes
the shunt field
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Generated E.M.F. or E.M.F. Equation of a
Generator
Let, u=flux/pole (wb)
Z= total no. Of armature conductors=No.of
slots X No.of conductors/slot
P=No. of generator poles
A = No. of parallel paths in armature
N= Armature rotation in rev/min (rpm)
E= emf induced in any parallel path in armature

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Generated EMF
Generated emf, E
g
= emf generated in any one
parallel paths
Average emf generated/conductor,


Flux cut/conductor in one rev,
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) 1 ( =
u
=
u
= N
dt
d
dt
d
N E
) / ( pole flux P d = u u = u
Generated EMF
N=rev/min
Rev/sec =
Time for one rev, second
Generated emf/conductor= (1)

For a simplex wave-wound generator
-No. of parallel paths = 2
-No. of conductors (in series) in one path=Z/2

3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 39
60
N
N
dt
60
=
volt
PN
N
P
dt
d
60 / 60
u
=
u
=
u
Generated EMF
volt
PN
N
P
dt
d
60 / 60
u
=
u
=
u
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Generated emf/conductor= (1)
Generated emf/Path= (2)
volt
ZPN Z PN
120 2 60
u
=
u
For a Simplex lap-wound generator
No.of parallel paths = P
No. of conductors in one path= Z/P

(1) Implies, (3)
volt
ZPN
P
Z PN
60 60
u
=
u
Generated EMF
volt
A
P ZN
E
g
|
.
|

\
|
u
=
60
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A = 2 (for simplex wave-winding)
= P (for simplex lap-winding)
N K E
a g
u =
A
ZP
K
a
=
-For a given dc m/c, Z, P, and A are constant
-N (rps)
Loss in Generator
Occur in different parts of the machine.
All appear as heat, i.e. they represent conversion to unless thermal
energy.
Losses has two major effects:
(i) Losses raise the temperature inside the m/c, and thus affect the
performance/life of the materials of the m/c, particularly insulation.
Therefore losses determine the upper limits on machine rating.
(ii) Losses are a waste of energy, and energy costs money; therefore losses
result in a waste of money( in the operating cost of the machine).
$$ Losses cannot be eliminated, but they can be reduced by proper design;
-design must also provide for ventilation to disperse the heat generated.

Thus, losses have a significant effect on the initial cost of the
machine.
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Copper Losses
The power lost in the form of heat in the armature winding of
a generator is known as COPPER LOSS.
Heat is generated any time current flows in a conductor.
Copper loss = I
2
R , which increases as current increases.
The amount of heat generated is also proportional to the
resistance of the conductor.
The resistance of the conductor varies directly with its length
and inversely with its crosssectional area.
Copper loss is minimized in armature windings by using large
diameter wire.
R L/A, A|, R+
Copper Losses
1. Armature copper loss:
- W
a
= I
a
2
R
a
- 30 to 40% of full-load losses

2. Field copper loss,
-W
f
= I
sh
2
R
sh
/I
se
2
R
se
- 20 to 30% of full-load losses

3. Brush contact loss
- Due to the brush contact resistance

Magnetic/Iron/Core Losses
1. Hysteresis Loss
-W
h
B
max
1-6
f

2. Eddy current loss
-W
e
B
2
max
f
2

- Both losses total up to 20 to 30% of full-load
losses
Hysteresis Loss
Hysteresis loss is a heat loss caused by the magnetic
properties of the armature.
When an armature core is in a magnetic field, the magnetic
particles of the core tend to line up with the magnetic field.
When the armature core is rotating, its magnetic field keeps
changing direction.
The continuous movement of the magnetic particles, as they
try to align themselves with the magnetic field, produces
molecular friction.
This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is transmitted to the
armature windings.
The heat causes armature resistances to increase.
How to reduce Hysteresis Loss?
To compensate for hysteresis losses, heat-
treated silicon steel laminations are used in
most dc generator armatures.
After the steel has been formed to the proper
shape, the laminations are heated and
allowed to cool.
This annealing process reduces the hysteresis
loss to a low value.

Eddy Current Loss
Eddy Current
The core of a generator armature is made from soft
iron, which is a conducting material with desirable
magnetic characteristics.
Any conductor will have currents induced in it when
it is rotated in a magnetic field.
These currents that are induced in the generator
armature core are called EDDY CURRENTS.
The power dissipated in the form of heat, as a result
of the eddy currents, is considered a loss.
Eddy Current Loss
Affected by the
resistance of the
material in which the
currents flow.
The resistance of any
material is inversely
proportional to its
cross-sectional area (R
L/A, A|, R+)


Eddy Current
Fig. B, shows a soft iron core of the
same size, but made up of several small
pieces insulated from each other. This
process is called lamination.
The currents in each piece of the
laminated core are considerably less
than in the solid core.



The currents in the individual pieces of
the laminated core are so small
Sum of the individual currents is much
less than the total of eddy currents in
the solid iron core.
R L/A, A +, R | I +
How can eddy current be reduced?
As you can see, eddy current losses are kept low when the core
material is made up of many thin sheets of metal.
Laminations in a small generator armature may be as thin as
1/64 inch.
The laminations are insulated from each other by a thin coat of
lacquer or, in some instances, simply by the oxidation of the
surfaces.
Oxidation is caused by contact with the air while the
laminations are being annealed.
The insulation value need not be high because the voltages
induced are very small.
Most generators use armatures with laminated cores to reduce
eddy current losses.
Mechanical Losses
1. Friction loss at bearings and commutator
2. Air-friction/Windage loss of rotating armature
-10 to 20% of full load losses
Stray Losses: Magnetic + Mechanical losses
-Rotational Losses
Constant/Standing Losses: (Shunt Cu + Stray)
Losses
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Total Loss = Variable Loss + Constant Loss

I
a
2
R
a
Shunt/Compound
Total Losses: Summary
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Total losses
Copper
shunt
series
Iron
hesteresis
eddy
Mechanical
Friction
Windage
Classification of Losses
Loss type rotati
onal
With
load
dependence
Armature circuit copper loss E No variable oI
A
2
Series field copper loss E No variable oI
A
2
Shunt field copper loss E No constant oV
t
2
Brush contact loss E No variable oI
a

Hysteresis loss M Yes constant ofB
X
max

Eddy current loss M Yes constant of
2
B
2
max

Friction loss ME Yes constant o Power of n
Windage loss ME Yes constant o Power of n
Stray load loss E+M
E
Yes variable indeterminate
Power Stages
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=output
of
driving
engine
Mechan
ical
power
input
Friction
losses
Iron and =E
g
I
a
Electrica
l power
develop
ed in
armatur
e
=I
a
2
R
a
Cu
losses
=VI
Electrica
l power
output
A B C
Generator Efficiency
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1. Mechanical Efficiency





2.Electrical Efficiency



3. Overall/Commercial Efficiency
engine driving of output
I E
supplied power mechanical
armature in generated watts total
a g
= =
m
q
a
I
g
E
VI
e
= = =
generated watts total
circuit load in available watts
B
C
q
supplied power mechanical
circuit load in available watts
A
C
= =
c
q
e m c
B
C
A
B
A
C
q q q = = =
~95% for good generator
Condition for Maxm Efficiency
Generator Output W
o
= VI
Generator input, W
i
= output + losses
= VI + (I
a
2
R
a
+W
c
)=VI + (I + I
sh
)
2
R
a
+ W
c
[I
a
= I + I
sh
]
-I
sh
is negligible as compared to load current (I)
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I
a
= I + I
sh
= I

Condition for Maxm Efficiency
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c a a
W R I VI
VI
+ +
= =
2
in
o
W input,
W output,
, Efficiency q
| | I I
W R I VI
VI
a
c a
=
+ +
=
2
q
-(1) - - -
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+ +
=
VI
W
V
IR
VI
W
VI
R I
VI
VI
VI
VI
c a
c
a
q
I
1
1
Condition for Maxm Efficiency
Efficiency is maximum when denominator is
minimum

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0 I or,
0
VI
R I
or,
0
V
R
or,
0
2
2
a
2
2
a
=
=

=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
c a
c
c
c a
W R
W
VI
W
VI
W
V
IR
dI
d
c
W
a
R =
2
I
Thus, Generator Efficiency is maximum when
Variable loss (I
2
R
a
) = constant Loss (W
c
)
a
R
c
W
a
R
c
W
=
=
I or,
2
I
Example
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In a long-shunt compound generator, the terminal voltage is
230 V when generator delivers 150 A. Determine (i) induced
emf (ii) total power generated and (iii) Distribution of this power.
Given that shunt field, series field, divertor and armature
resistances are 92O, 0.015 O, 0.03 O, and 0.032 O
respectively.
Given,
V=230 V
I = 150 A
R
sh
= 92 O
R
se
= 0.015 O
R = 0.03 O
R
a
= 0.032 O
E
g
= ?
P
total
= ?
P
dist
= ?
Solution
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 61
A
L
o
a
d

R
s
h
=
9
2
O

R
d
=
0
.
0
3
O

R
s
e
=
0
.
0
1
5
O

V=230 V
R
a
=
0
.
0
3
2
O

I = 150 A
I
sh
= 2.5 A
: = + = + =
= = =
O = + = + =
O =
+

= = =
= + = + =
= = =
=
V 4 . 236 4 . 6 230 V V E voltage, Generatd
V 4 . 6 042 . 0 5 . 152 R I V R at drop Voltage
042 . 0 01 . 0 032 . 0 R R R
01 . 0
03 . 0 015 . 0
03 . 0 015 . 0
03 . 0 015 . 0 R R R
A 5 . 152 5 . 2 150 I I I
A 5 . 2
92
230
R
V
I
R I V (i)
atotal g
atotal a atotal atotal,
c a atotal
d se c
sh a
sh
sh
sh sh
Solution
3/1/2013 CSE, CUET 62
: = = = Watt 5 . 152 4 . 236
a
I
g
E
a
P
Armature in Generated Power Total (ii)
36,051
( )
( )
: = + + + =
+ + + =
= = =
= = =
= = =
= = =
36051 34500 575 232 744
P P P P P power, of on distributi Total
34500 150 230 P load, to delivered Power
Watt 575 5 . 2 230 VI P ing, shunt wind in loss Power
Watt 232 01 . 0 5 . 152 R I P Divertor, and series in loss Power
Watt 744 032 . 0 5 . 152 R I P armature, in loss Power (iii)
Load sh c a dist
Load
sh sh
2
c
2
a c
2
a
2
a a
VI
Self Study
Solve the Following Problems:
Example 24.3, 24.4, 24.5 24.7, 24.21, 24.22,
24.23, 24.24, 24.25
Exercise: 2, 9
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CT#01
3/E, Monday
Syllabus: Up to 36
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