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TRADITIONAL strategies

- means of conveying facts, information and ideas that could not be readily obtained elsewhere.

LECTURING

Purposes of Lecturing:
1. Means of introducing learners to new topics setting a stage for new area of learning and placing the topic into the perspective of what is already known

2.Means of stimulating students interests 3.Use to inspire people 4.To integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from several fields or sources

5.Clarification of difficult concepts can be clarified in lectures 6.Means of transmitting a certain topics recent knowledge advances and when up-to-date textbooks are not available

Advantages of the Lecture Method:


1. It is economical in terms of space, student time and amount of information shared in a limited time 2. It supplements a textbook by enhancing a topic and making it come to life by incorporating lecturers wealth of personal experience and enthusiasm

3. Helps student develop their learning abilities listening, remembering, tracking arguments, deciding what to take notes on, and relate what is being said to the assigned reading.

Disadvantages of Lecture Method


1.Places little emphasis on problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking, or transfer of learning 2.Not conducive to meeting students individual learning needs.

3. Brings with it the problem of limited attention span on the part of learners. Parkers loss of novel stimulation (1993) although people are very attentive to new stimuli in any situation, the novelty soon wears off and they become somewhat immune to the stimulus unless it is varied in some ways.

ADVANTAGES
1. It is economical.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Places little emphasis on problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking or transfer of learning.

2. It supplements a textbook 2. Not conducive to meeting by enhancing a topic and students individual learning making it come to life. needs. 3. Helps student develop their learning abilities. 3. Brings with it the problem of limited attention span on the part of learners.

Lecture Frameworks
1. Hierarchical or classical format most commonly used form; information is grouped, divided and subdivided in typical outline form.

it is the simplest lecture framework and is very easy for learners to follow. It is most appropriate for teaching of facts and for introducing difficult material

2. Problem centered format a problem is posed, and various hypotheses and solutions are developed. It is not advisable to used for complex problems as hypotheses and solutions may overlap.

3. Comparative framework used when the objective is to differentiate between two entities 4. Thesis format involves the lecturer taking a position on an issue or a particular viewpoint on a subject and then supporting or justifying that viewpoint or position with evidence or logic.

Steps to Present an Organized Lecture:


1. Explain the structure of the lecture verbally at the start of the class. 2. Show the outline on a transparency, slide, or handout.

3. Continue stressing the points in the structure as the lecture unfolds through using advance organizers. These are statements that form a bridge between what has been already discussed and those to come. 4. Summarize the structure and main points at the end of the lecture.

1. Structure or outline is not obvious to the listener. No apparent rationale for sequence of topics. 2. No mention of the objectives or desired learning outcomes of the lecture. 3. Lecturer mentions the same topic at different times for no apparent purpose other than failing to complete a thought at one time.

Characteristics of Disorganized Lectures:

4. No advance organizers before new concepts are introduced. 5. Lack of smooth transition between sections of the lecture. 6. No summary or synthesis at the end.

Delivering the Lecture:


1. Controlling your anxiety through visualization (visualizing yourself as you want to appear to your audience) which increases your selfconcept and confidence.

2. Spontaneity avoid reading to the class as it kills spontaneity and can be anesthesizing. Do not write your lecture out in full sentences but do not conduct lecture with no notes at all. 3. Voice Quality Learn how to project your voice with a few pointers from a speech teacher and with some practice. Beware of lecturing in a monotone. Vary the pitch and volume of your voice as you speak.

4. Body Language it adds a dramatic quality to your lecture. Do not stand glued to one spot but rather, move occasionally. Use your hands for emphasis. Be aware of your annoying mannerisms (if there is/are). Maintain eye contact with the class. Move your eyes around the class at times.

5. Speed of Delivery If its too slow, it can induce boredom and if its too fast, it can result to writers cramp for students as they struggle to take notes and to understand what is being said 6. Getting Off on the Right Foot Avoid just walking into the class and immediately launching into the lecture. Have a casual conversation. Start class with attention getters.

7. Clarifying during the Lecture Give examples and analogies rather than repetition. 8. Facilitating Retrieval from Memory using these techniques: Repetition helps in fixing information in memory and make it more likely to be retrieved at a later time. Elaboration Imagery brain encodes in the form of either words or mental pictures.

Lecture Variations:
Traditional oral essay Participatory lecture Lecture with completed handouts Feedback lecture Mediated lecture

DISCUSSION
- a talk between two or more people about a subject,
usually to exchange ideas or reach a conclusion, or talk of this kind.

Types:
1. Formal Discussion topic is announced in advance and the class is asked to prepare to take part in the discussion by reading certain materials or watching a videotape. 2. Informal Discussion takes place spontaneously at any point during the class including at the end of the lecture when the teacher asks, Are there any questions?

Purposes and Advantages of Discussion:


1. Give learners an opportunity to apply principles, concepts, and theories. 2. Clarification of information and concepts. 3. Students can learn the process of group problem solving. 4. Help participants develop and evaluate their beliefs and positions. 5. Attitudes can be changed through discussion. 6. Many students like it.

Disadvantages of Discussion:
It takes a lot of time. Expensive strategy (effective only for small groups) Has a tendency to be either monopolized by few members or result into few members participating. Valuable only if participants come prepared with the necessary background information.

Discussion Techniques:
1. Make your expectations clear. 2. Set the ground rules. 3. Arrange the physical space. 4. Plan a discussion starter. 5. Facilitate, do not discuss.

6. Encourage quiet group members. 7. Do not allow monopolies. 8. Direct the discussion among group members. 9. Keep the discussion on track. 10. Clarify when confusion reigns. 11. Tolerate some silence. 12. Summarize when appropriate.

- a strategy of which the origin is traced way back from Socrates in which every question of a student is answered back by a question by the teacher. These are questions that test a students critical thinking and not just for recalling factual material.

QUESTIONING

Functions Questioning:

of

1. Places learners in an active role. 2. Can be used to assess a baseline of knowledge. 3. Can be used to review content. 4. Can be a motivation to learn. 5. Can be used to guide learners

Levels of Questions:
1. Convergent or Divergent Convergent Questions: - require learners to recall or integrate information they have learned - require fairly low-level cognitive activity - have specific, usually short and expected answers

Divergent Questions: - ask the learner to generate new ideas, draw implications or formulate a new perspective on a topic. - there is no single correct answer. -require a higher level of cognitive activity.

2. Lower-order or higher-order questions: Lower-order questions: -those that require learners to recall information they read or memorized. Higher-order questions - require more than recall - the learner would have to be able to comprehend or think critically about the information.

3. Blooms Taxonomy composed of questions that elicit thinking at the levels of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation

Types of Questions:
1. Factual questions- demand a simple recall answer. 2. Probing questions- teacher wants a learner to further explain an answer. 5 TYPES OF PROBING QUESTIONS a. Extension Probes- ask learners to elaborate on a response b. Clarification Probes- used when learners responses are unclear c. Justification Probes- ask learners to justify their responses d. Prompting Probes- help a responder who is unsure of an answer or gives an incorrect answer e. Redirection Probes- elicit a variety of responses from the group of learners

3.Multiple-choice questions- such questions can be oral as well as written, used to test recall or start a discussion 4.Open-ended questions- encompass all questions that require learners to construct an answer. 5. Discussion-stimulating questions 6. Questions that guide problem solvingguide learners through problem-solving thinking. 7. Rhetorical questions

Questioning Techniques:
1. Prepare some questions ahead of time. 2. State questions clearly and specifically. 3. Tolerate some silence. 4. Listen carefully to response. 5. Use the beam, focus, build technique 6. Provide feedback. 7. Handle wrong answers carefully.

Stimulating Learners to Ask Questions:


1. Guide students thinking along a path that will lead to the development of questions and hypotheses about a subject. 2. Monitor behavior to ensure that youre not unknowingly discouraging questions. 3. Praise and thank students for asking. Ask them if youve answered their question. When responding to the question, talk to the class, not only to the questioner.

AUDIOVISUALS

- address all three modes of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Examples include: pictures and charts, overhead transparencies, Powerpoint presentation slides, and DVDs.

WHITEBOARD CHALKBOARD

TRANSPARENCIES

VIDEOTAPE PROJECTOR HANDOUTS DVDs

OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES and PROJECTOR

Factors Affecting Selection of Media:


1. Learning objectives 2. Availability of both materials and technical assistance 3. Level, number and ability of learners

Types of Traditional Audiovisuals:


1. Handouts - used to communicate facts, figures and concepts - ensure that all learners have access to the same information and can review that information whenever necessary.

Guidelines for Preparing Quality Handouts:


1. Include key points and minimize unnecessary detail. 2. Format text with headings, paragraphs, or bullets. 3. Use font size of 12 to 14 for hard copy and online use, powerpoint slides from 33 to 44. 4. Include diagram or graphics. 5. Add to visual appeal with colors, borders or varied fonts. 6. Edit carefully. 7. Include appropriate references.

2. Chalkboards or Whiteboards - outstanding feature: allow for spontaneity in the classroom. - useful in working out mathematical problems, for spelling new words, for outlining material to be covered in class. - must be placed where the entire class can see it easily. - write only in the upper two-thirds of the board. - the method is not good for the instructor who has poor handwriting.

3. Overhead Transparencies
- are sheets or acetates placed on overhead projector that enlarges and projects the image onto a screen.

4. Videotapes - used to film students while they role-play interviewing, communication, and counselling skills, and while they practice psychomotor skills. - cost-effective, learning outcomes similar to inperson teaching. - teacher can still maintain an eye to eye contact - motion enhances the realism of the situation and often increases interest and affective learning.

- can be used at learners own pace. The learner can replay and freeze frames according to his or her needs. - disadvantages include: (1) only oneway communication occurs; (2) fairly fragile and; (3) can break or get erased

5. Digital Video/Versatile Discs (DVDs)


- smaller, more portable, more durable and easier to store than videotapes - can include closed captioning and can accommodate embedded Web links - can be played on desktop or laptop computers with a DVD drive or on televisions with a DVD player

INTERACTIVE LECTURE
- combination of all other traditional strategies making the learners periodically active in class.

Approaches: 1. Each participant prepares a summary of the main points at the end of a presentation. Teams of participants switch their summaries and select the best summary from each set. 2. Participants write closed and open questions and gain points by answering each others questions. 3. Presenter conducts a coaching session with an individual participant. Other participants observe and learn vicariously.

References:
Davis, B., Tools for Teaching, 2nd Edition Deyoung, S., Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators, 2nd Edition Ferguson, S., Social and Emotional Strategies Gaberson, K., Oermann, M., Clinical Teaching Strategies in Nursing, 3rd Edition

Presented by Group 1 Bautista, Guevarra Clan S. Dulana, Emariel G. Francisco, Sheila Mae A. Purisima, Ronelene B. Tabangcora, Iris Dawn D. BSN II
Presented to Amalia C. Billote, RN, RM, MN Clinical Instructor in HealthEd Finals PNO-NONESCOST College of Nursing May 14, 2012