Sie sind auf Seite 1von 43

DC Motor

Dr. Mohammed Moshiul Hoque


Motor
An Electric motor is a machine which converts
electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Machine
Electrical
energy
Mechanical
energy
Basic Principle
If a conductor is placed in a magnetic field and
current is allowed to flow through the conductor,
the conductor will tend to move. A force is
exerted on the conductor because it is carrying
current and it is located in a magnetic field
The force (F) exerted on a conductor depends
upon the flux density of the magnetic field (B),
the length of the conductor in the magnetic field
(L), and the magnitude of the current in the
conductor (I).
F=0.886 BLI x 10
-7
lb
Basic Principle
When its field magnets are excited and its
armature conductors are supplied with current
from the supply mains, they experience a force
tending to rotate the armature.
Armature conductors under N-pole are
assumed to carry current downward (crosses)
and those under S-poles, to carry current
upwards (dots).
By applying Flemings LHR, the direction of the
force on each conductor can be found.
Each conductor experiences a force F which
tends to rotate the armature in anticlockwise
direction.
These forces collectively produce a driving
torque which sets the armature rotating.
F
N S

+
Force
Use LHR to determine the
direction of force
Index: direction of flux from N to S poles
Middle: direction of current
Thumb: Direction of force
Back/Counter EMF
5-hp
240 V
20.4 A
R
a
=0.97O
Ohms Law, I = V/R
=240/0.97
=248A
~ appx. 10 times of the full load
current (20.4A)
? ?
Back/Counter EMF produced by the armature
Back EMF
N S N S
(a) Force motor (LHR)
(b) Motion generator (RHR)
-Generator principle: A voltage would be induced if the conductor cut
lines of flux.
-The movement of a conductor through the magnetic field could be
performed manually, or by some external prime mover or By the
conductor itself.
-When current flows through a conductor, a force is exerted on the
conductor that causes the conductor to move in the magnetic field.
-Movement of the conductor in the magnetic field produces
generator action, and a voltage is induced in the conductor in such a
direction as to oppose the applied voltage.
Back/Counter EMF
In as much as two
currents are in
opposite directions,
the two voltages are
in opposition.
Hence the voltage
induced is opposite
to the applied voltage
and therefore is
referred to the
back/counter emf.
a
R
b
E
=
t
V
a
I
Back/Counter
emf
E
b
can be acts as a governor
E
b
depends on the N
N|, E
b
|, I
a
+
N +, E
b
+, I
a
|
I
a
|, Torque will be large
E
b
acts like a governor
It makes a motor self-regulating so that it draws
as much as current as is just necessary.
a
R
b
E
=
t
V
a
I ( )volt
b
E
A
P
ZN u =
Voltage Equation of a Motor
) (Generator E
(Motor)
I
g
a
t
V
a
I
a a t
a a b t
b t a
R I V
R I E V
E V R
a
R
b
E
+ =
+ =
=

=
(V
t
> E
b
)
(E
g
> V
t
)
-Under normal condition, the back emf can never be greater than the terminal voltage
-This is understandable when it is realized that the applied voltage causes the
armature to rotate, which in turn produces the back emf.
-E
b
=V
t
, I
a
=0, armature would cease to rotate, and E
b
= 0.
@The back emf can never equal the applied voltage.
efficiency
motor higher the , E higher the
b
2
V
E
VI
I E
R I I E VI
b
a
a b
a a a b a
= =
+ =
q
Electrical input
Electrical equivalent
Mechanical power
developed
Armature cu
loss
Power Stages
All electrical power supplied to a motor is converted
into mechanical power. Some of the power is
dissipated in the field windings, and some in the
armature circuit.
The remainder is available for conversion into
mechanical power.
The total power supplied to the motor = V
t
I
L
A portion of this power is consumed by the shunt
filed = V
t
I
f
.
The difference between the power delivered to the
motor and the power consumed in the shunt field is
the power delivered to the armature.
Power Stages
Total power
furnished to
motor = V
t
I
L
Power to
armature =
V
t
(I
L
-I
f
)=V
t
I
a
Power to
shunt field
= V
t
I
f
Power
dissipated
in armature
resistance =
I
a
2
R
a
Electrical power
converted to
mechanical
power, Pm = V
t
I
a
I
a
2
R
a
=E
b
I
a
A
B
Iron/Friction Loss
Motor Output C
Power Stages
( )
] I - I [I I V P
I I V P
I V I V P
f L a a t a
f L t a
f t L t a
= =
=
=
The power delivered to the armature is not entirely converted
into mechanical power.
Part of this is dissipated in the armature resistance and
remainder is converted into mechanical power
Power Stages
( )
] R I - V [E E I P
R I V I P
R I I V P
Power Mechanical to Converted Power Electrical
R I W armature, in loss Power
Ia V P armature, to delivered Power
a a t b b a m
a a t a m
a
2
a a t m
a
2
a a
t a
= =
=
=
=
=
The electrical power converted into mechanical power is equal
to the product of the Back/counter emf and the armature current.
This mechanical power is not available outside of the motor, only
inside
Losses and Efficiency
Same as generators
Copper losses
Magnetic losses
Mechanical losses
Efficiency
Overall/commercial efficiency, q
C
=C/A
Electrical Efficiency, q
e
=B/A
Mechanical Efficiency, q
m
=C/B
Copper Loss= A-B
Iron/Friction Loss = B-C
Condition for Maximum Power
a
R
a
I
a
VI
m
P
a
R
a
I
a
VI
a
I
b
E
a
R
a
I
a
I
b
E
a
VI
2
2
2
=
=
+ =
Gross mechanical power developed by a motor
( )
2
2
0 2
0 )
2
(
t
V
a
R
a
I
t
V
a
R
a
I
a
R
a
I
t
V
a
R
a
I
a
I
t
V
a
dI
d
m
P
a
dI
d
=
=
=
= =
2
2
t
V
2
t
V
t
V know, we AS
t
V
b
E
t
V
b
E
t
V
b
E
a
R
a
I
b
E
= :
=
+ =
+ =
Thus, gross mechanical power developed
by a motor is maximum when back emf is
equal to half of the applied voltage.
Torque
Means turning or twisting
moment of a force about an axis.
If the conductor rotates in the
magnetic field, then the current
through the conductor would
exert a force
the conductor would tend to
rotate in a clockwise direction.
This tendency to produce rotation
is known as torque.
Measured by the product of the
force and the radius at which this
force acts.
S N

r
+
F
Center of Rotation
Torque
Torque, T = F x r n-m
Work done by this force in one revolution,
= Force x distance = F x 2tr jule
Power developed = F x 2tr x N jule/sec (watt)
= (F x r ) x 2 t N watt
= T x e [e = 2 t N]
P = T e watt
Torque
P = T e watt
e = 2tN/60 [if N is in r. p. m]
P =T x 2tN/60 = NT x 2 t /60
P = NT/9.55 watt

Armature Torque of a Motor
P = T
a
x e [T
a
armature torque running at rps]
P
a
= T
a
x2tN
We know, electrical power converted into
mechanical power, P = E
b
I
a
watt
P
a
= P
T
a
x2tN = E
b
I
a
= u Z N x (P/A) x I
a
(**)





m - N ZI 0.159
a
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
u =
A
P
A
P
ZI T
a a
a
T
.
2
1
t
Armature Torque of a Motor
(1)
a
I
a
T
m - N
a
ZI 0.159
u
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
P
a
T
1. In case of a series motor, u is directly proportional to I
a
(1) T
a
I
a
. I
a
I
a
2
2. For shunt motore, u is practically constant

(1) T
a
K. I
a
I
a

Armature Torque of a Motor
(**) T
a
x2tN = E
b
I
a



m - N
N
I E
9.55 T
a b
a
=
= =
=
N
I E
N
I E
T
N
I E
T
a b a b
a
a b
a
.
2
60
60
2
2
t
t
t
Shaft Torque
The whole of the armature torque is not
available for doing useful work-
because a certain percentage of it is required for
supplying iron & friction losses in the motor.
The torque which is available for doing useful
work is known as shaft torque.
It is so called because it is available at the shaft.
Shaft Torque
m N
N
output
T
N
output
2
T
2N/6
output
2
output
T
2 T Output
watt T output
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
=
=
= =
=
=
55 . 9
60
e
T
lost
= T
a
-T
sh
Due to iron
and friction
losses
Torque and Speed
(2)
K
R I V
K
E
N
(1) N K E
a a t b
b
u

=
u
=
u =
u|, N+ & Ta |
It cannot be so because torque tends to produce rotation.
oIf torque increases, motor speed must increase rather
decrease.
oStrange ??????????
Torque and Speed
1. A reduction in flux would reduce the back emf
E
b
= KuN [u +, E
b
+]
2. The reduction in back emf would produce an
increase in armature current


3. A reduction in flux would reduce the torque and an
increase in the armature current would increase
the torque

a
b t
a
R
E V
I

=
{E
b
+, I
a
|}
T = KuI
a
[u+, T+; Ia|, T|]

Torque and Speed
Since the increase in the armature current is
greater than the decrease in flux, the resulting
torque would increase.
4. The increased torque will increase the speed of
the machine and therefore, the magnitude of the
back emf will increase [T|, N |, E |].
5. The increase in the speed and back emf brings
about a reduction in the armature current and
torque. Reduction is such as to meet the
requirements of the new conditions at a new
constant speed.
Torque and Speed
Field circuit of the motor never be opened while power
is applied to the motor.
When open, u=0, N|||
Centrifugal force will high.
Windings to be pulled out of the slots
May cause copper commutator segments to buckles
(i.e., Damage the motor).
Proper use of overload devices would protect the
motor.
Since the reduced flux reduces the back emf, a larger
current would be drawn by the motor.
This excessive current would operate the
overload device, disconnect the motor from the
supply, and thus protect the motor.
u
=
K
E
N
b
Motor Characteristics
Torque and Armature Current (T
a
vs. I
a
)
Speed and Armature Current (N vs. I
a
)
Speed and Torque (N vs. T
a
)
T
a
vs. I
a
(Series Motor)
T
a
uI
a

Field windings carry the
armature current (I
a
= I
f
)
Up to saturation, u I
a

Before Saturation,
T
a
uI
a
I
a
. I
a
= I
a
2
At light loads, I
a
and hence
u is small. But I
a
increases,
T
a
increases as the square
of the current.


T
a
vs. I
a
(Series Motor)
After Saturation, u is
almost independent of I
a
T
a
uI
a
= I
a
Characterizes becomes
straight line
T
sh
< T
a
due to stray losses
Use where huge starting
torque (hoists and electric
trains)
N vs. I
a
(Series Motor)
u
=
K
E
N
b
u

b
E
N
I
a
|, u | , N+, varies
inversely
When load is heavy, I
a
is
large. N is low
When I
a
falls to a small
value, N | | |
(2)
K
R I V
K
E
N
a a t b
u

=
u
=
N vs. I
a
(Series Motor)
Hence, a series motor should never be started
without some mechanical load on it otherwise it
may develop excessive speed and get damaged
due to heavy centrifugal forces so produced.
(2)
K
R I V
K
E
N
a a t b
u

=
u
=
With no load, the value of I
a
is very small. The numerator
is large, while denominator is very small.
N is so large.

N vs. T
a
(Series Motor)
Also known as
mechanical
characteristics.
Speed is high,
torque is low and
vice-versa.
T
a
uI
a

u

b
E
N
u|, N+
u|, T
a
|
N + , T
a
|


T
a
vs. I
a
(Shunt Motor)
u is constant


Since a heavy stating
load will need a heavy
starting current, shunt
motor should never be
started on heavy load.
T
a
uI
a
I
a

N vs. I
a
(Shunt Motor)
u is constant, NE
b
E
b
is also practically constant,
N is constant (most cases)
E
b
& u + with I
a
/I
L
|
E
b
decreases slightly more
than u so that the whole there
is some decrease in N
Suitable: driving shafting, m/c
tools, lathes, wood-working
m/c

u

b
E
N
N vs. T
a
(Shunt Motor)
N is constant with T
a
T
a
T
a
uI
a
I
a

NE
b

Applications
Compassion of Shunt and Series
Motors
Self Study
Page (842-843)
Book: B. L. Thereja
Problem
A 4-pole, 240 A, wave connected shunt motor gives 11.19
KW when running at 1000 rpm and drawing armature &
field currents of 50 A and 1.0 A respectively. It has 540
conductors. Its resistance is 0.01O. Assuming a drop of 1
volt per brush. Find (a) total torque (b) useful torque (c)
useful flux/pole (d) rotational losses, and (f) efficiency
Given,
P = 4
V
t
= 240 V
P
o
= 11.19 KW = 11190 W
N = 1000 rpm
I
a
= 50 A
I
f
= 1 A
Z = 540
R
a
= 0.1O
V
B
= 1 V/brush = 1* 2 = 2 V
A = 2 (wave connected)

T t = ?
T
sh
= ?
u
u
= ?
P
r
= ?
q = ?
Problem
E
b
= V
t
I
a
R
a
V
B
= 240 (50 x 0 .1) 2
= 233 V
(a) T
a
= 9.55 E
b
I
a
/N
= 9.55 x 233 x 50/1000
= 111 n-m :
(b) T
sh
= 9.55 output/N
= 9.55 x 11190 / 1000
= 106. 9 n-m:

(c)
: =
= =


= u
|
.
|

\
|
u
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

mwb 12.9
1000
12.9

4 1000 540
2 60 233
60
1000 540
233
A
P
60
ZN
E
b
3
10 9 . 12
2
4
u
Problem
( )
: =
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
= = =
= = =
= = =
W 460
11190 - 6850 11,
P Loss, Rotational
W 6850 11,
350 - 12000
100 250 - 12000
P Developed, Power
W P loss, Brush
W P
W (d)
R
d
B
cu
0
2 2
100 50 2
250 1 . 0 50
000 , 12 50 240
P P
losses P
I V
R I
I V P
d
in
a B
a a
a t in
: =
= =
=
=
=
+ = + =
=
91.4%
P
P
Now,
W P have, We
W
51 240
I I I
P input, Total (e)
in
o
o
f a L
in
100
12240
11190
100
11190
12240
] [ ) 1 50 ( 240
L t
I V
Problem
Solve Yourself
Examples: 27.3, 27.10, 27. 11, 27. 15, 27.25
Exercise: 12