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PRESENTATION ON BIOPESTICIDES

By:
Amrita Bhumika Aditi Jha

BIO PESTICIDES
What are bio pesticides? All the living organisms, which are cultivated in

the laboratory on large scale and are used and exploited experimentally for the control of harmful organisms are, called biopesticides. The examples include insects, virus bacteria, fungi, protozoan and nematodes.

MAJOR CATEGORIES
Biopesticides fall into following major classes: 1. Microbial pesticides may consist of the organisms

themselves and/or the metabolites they produce. 2. Microbial biopesticides are generally divided into 3 different subcategories of products: bacteria, fungi or viruses. 3. Plant-incorporated protectants, (PIPs)have genetic material from other species incorporated into their genetic material (i.e. GM crops). 4. Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests by nontoxic mechanisms.

LIVING ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDES


Plant predators are themselves subject to attack

by predators, parasites, and microbes, all of which can indirectly help protect a plant and therefore are also considered biopesticides. An oak tree may have about 100 species of insect herbivores feeding on it. In turn, there can be up to 1,000 species of predators, parasites, and microbes feeding on the herbivores.

MODIFIED ORGANISMS AS BIOPESTICIDE


In 1980s, many crops have been genetically

modified to produce biopesticides that will help protect them from insects and pathogens (including viruses). In 1998, 40 million hectares of engineered crops were planted throughout the world (though 74% of the modified cropland is in the United States).

How many biopesticide products?


Wide variation in countries Over a 1000 products in USA Significantly fewer in EU Microbial products 200 in USA 60 comparable products available in EU

Benefits of Biopesticides
Host specificity

Ability to multiply in the target cells


No problem of toxic residue

No evidence or absence of resistance


No problem of cross resistance

Conventional technique or methods of application


May aid chemical pesticide performance when used

together

Case study on benefits of Bio pesticides (Tsunami case study)

Bio pesticides - Concerns


High selectivity and host specificity

Higher unit prices as compared to chemical pesticides


In general, bio pesticides are not as effective as

chemicals
Bio pesticides may not work immediately- delayed effect

or mortality
Technical knowledge Difficulty of culturing in large quantities

Techno Market Survey On Biopesticides


Annual loss due to biopesticides in the agriculture sector is

around Rs. 15,000 crore


Agricultural crops are susceptible to attacks by various

kinds of pests
After 20 years it was found that the level of synthetic

pesticides were building and were non biodegradable


Pesticide management has become a major issue

Some of the organisms can be used as pesticides


Chemicals extracted from neem seeds are effective

pesticides