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Presentation Z. A. Patel

Choosing brand elements to build brand equity

BRAND EQUITY: is defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand.

Brand Name Logo Symbol Character Packaging Slogan

Criteria for choosing brand elements

Memorability Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability Protectability

# Memorability is a necessary condition for achieving high level of brand awareness. # Must choose elements that are memorable # Some names, symbols, tugos, and even visual properties are more attention getting and easy to remember.

# Brand names could be based on people, places, animals, birds or other things or objects. # When choosing a brand name, two important aspects that must be kept in mind are:
A) General information about the nature of the product category. In other words, is the content of the brand element consistent with what consumers would expect to see from a brand in that product category?

B) Specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brands. Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand. Head and Shoulders American Express

# Associations suggested by brand elements are not always related to the product. # How much customers would like the brand element is also important.

# How useful is the brand element for line or category extensions? # In general, less specific is the name, the more easily it can be transferred across categories. # Amazon- is a river- can sell anything using this name. # Toys R us can only sell toys under this brand name.

# Brand elements needs to be updated over time. # More adaptable and flexible the brand elements, the easier it is to update it. # Logos and characters can be given new look or a new design to make them appear modern.

# Choose brand elements that can be legally protected and on international basis. # Register them with appropriate legal bodies.

# Defend trademarks from unauthorized infringements. # Name, package or other attribute should not be easy to copy.

# When Pepsi started marketing its products in China, they translated their slogan, Pepsi brings you back to life, pretty literally. The slogan in chinese really meant Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the grave.


Brand Name: # Brand names are effective shorthand means of communication. The Brand name can be noticed and its meanings could be activated in memory within just few seconds.

# Brand name is the most difficult brand element for marketers to subsequently change.

# There are 1,40,000 words in English vocabulary average people only recognize 20,000 word. Name lab sticks to 7000 words that make up the vocabulary of most TV programs.

# Finding a good brand name is difficult also because most of the desirable Brand names are already registered.

Landors brand name taxonomy

1. Descriptive
Describes function literally: generally unregisterable Examples: Singapore Airlines

II. Suggestive Suggestive of a benefit or function Example: CLINIC ALL CLEAR

III. Compounds Combination of two or more, often unexpected, words Example: redhat

IV. Classical Based on Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit Example: Meritor

V. Arbitrary Real words with no obvious tie in to company Example: Apple

VI. Fanciful Coined words with no obvious meaning Example: Exxon

Brand awareness
Guidelines to enhance Brand awareness: # Simplicity It reduces consumer effort to comprehend brand names # Short names facilitate recall.

# Longer names can be shortened to ease recallability. Coca-Cola to Coke # Ease of pronunciation is important.

# Brand name may also be choosen to suggest the product or service category (Frooti, Newsweek) # However, names that are highly descriptive could be restrictive if you intend to introduce different products with these brand names.

# Choosing simple, easy to pronounce familiar and meaningful names can improve brand recognition. # It is also important for a brand name to be different, distinctive and unusual.

Brand Associations
# Explicit and implicit meanings that consumers extract from the name. # A brand name should make it easier to link the reinforced attributes or benefit. Blossom (Fresh scent for Clothes) Compaq (small computer) J&J Baby shampoo (gentle shampoo)

Naming procedures
# Define branding objectives Also define the ideal meaning brand should take. # Generate as many names and concepts as possible.

# Screen names based on branding objectives and marketing consideration. # Eliminate the following names. 1. names with unintentional double meanings. 2. Names that are unpronounceable or already in use.

3. Names that have obvious legal complications. 4. Names that represent an obvious contradiction of the positioning.

# Obtain extensive information on each of the final 5 or 10 names. # Conduct consumer research to confirm management expectations as to memorability and meaningfulness of the names. # Based on all the information, management can choose the name.

# Domain names you use convey the image of your company to customers. # Typically for an existing brand URL is a straightforward and may be even literal translation of the brand name. (www.

# Using domain names address like and e-mail addresses like Yahoo or Hotmail can negatively affect your image.


# Visual brand elements play an important role in building brand equity. # Logos come in many forms 1. Like corporate names written in distinct form like Coca Cola. 2. Entirely abstract logos. Mercedes, Rolex, Nike swoosh, Non-word mark logos often called symbols.

# Some logos are literal representations of the brand name. (Apple) # Logos can be pictorial

# Certain elements of the product or company can become a symbol (Mcdonalds golden arches) # Logos have meanings and associations that change consumer perception of the Co.

# Problem with abstract logos is that marketing department will have to explain meanings.

Benefits of logos
# Easy to recognize and valuable way to identify products. # Versatility They can be updated and can be used across cultures and across product categories. # Logos can be easily changed compare to brand names.

# Character is a special type of brand symbol. # Brand characters are introduced through advertising. Some brand characters are animated Pilburys Dough boy. # Some use live action figure Marlboro cowboy.

Benefits of using characters

# Characters are colorful and rich in imagery. # Will get customer attention. # The ability of a consumer to have a relationship with a brand may be easier when the brand has a humanistic character.

Cautions when using characters

# Characters need to be updated overtime so their image and personality remains relevant to the target market. # Michelin introduced recently new Michelin man.

# These are short phrases that communicate persuasive information about the brand. # Can be used in Advertising, packaging and other aspects of marketing program.

Benefits of slogans
# Some slogans help build brand awareness by playing off the brand name in some way:

# Other slogans build brand awareness by making links between the brand and the product. (If you are not wearing dockers, you are just wearing pants)

# slogan can help to reinforce brand positioning

# Sometimes puffery, subjective opinion, superlative and exaggerations are used. E-g- Bayer works wonders (Bayer) Uncomparably good (Keebler)

# Sometimes slogan tag line explain the objective of communication. E-g. A Diamond is forever. Intended message is diamonds bring eternal love, romance and never lose value.

# Most powerful slogans are those that contribute to brand equity in multiple ways. # Some slogans become so strongly linked to the brand that it becomes difficult to subsequently introduce new ones. For example: Just do it

# Musical messages written around the brand . # These can be thought of as extended musical slogans.

# Jingles often repeat the brand name in clever and amusing ways.

# Because of their catchy nature, consumers are also likely to mentally rehearse or repeat the jingle.

IDENTIFY THE BRAND CONVVAY PURSUASIVE INFORMATION Facilitate product transportation Assistt home storage Avoid product consumption

# The package appearance can become an important means of brand recognition. # The information conveyed or inferred from the package can build or reinforce valuable brand associations.

# average shopper is exposed to 15000 to 20,000 products in shopping visit that lasts less than 30 minutes. # Few product differences exist in some categories, packaging innovation can provide a temporary edge on competition.

# Packaging is called last five seconds of marketing and the last salesman.

Packaging Innovation
Like Snapples widemouth bottle Pringles chips Can help in attracting customer attention.

Package design
# Designers must keep in mind the shelf impact of a package. # Bigger and brighter packages are not always better than competitor packages.

# Some information is legally required on packages.

# One of the most important design elements in packaging is its color.