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Ethical Dilemma AND Leadership Values and Ethical Reasoning

SHABINA Z DESAI Module :-1 & 2

What Is Ethics?

A group of moral principles or set of values that define or direct us to the right choice

Nine theories of ethics


1. Situational ethics
Lying is Wrong , but if you lie to do avoid hurting someone feelings, lying is right .

2. Consequential ethics
Result will be positive

3. value ethics
Your behavior according to your value

4. Utilitarian ethics
If you kill one person to save many , it ok to do so.

5. Moralistic ethics
Pacifisit may always believe war is always wrong ,no matter how justified it may seems.

6. Ethical realism
Based on real world

7. Ethical hierarchies
Certain ethical values are more important than others

8. Principles of ethics
Just principles or theories to guide decision s.

9. Moral development
Ethics can be taught that greater levels of ethical behavior can be achieved as one learn

What Is an Ethical Dilemma?


Situation in which two or more deeply held values come into conflict. In these situations, the correct ethical choice may be unclear. What should or ought I do?

What is right or wrong, good or bad?

Ethical Dilemma
Ethical Dilemma arises in a situation when one is faced to choose the right one from several conflicting alternatives (e.g conflict between responsibility and values) There are situations when there is not simple choice between right or wrong. Dilemmas are complex when manager have no clear guidelines either in law or in religion.

Ethical dilemma are complex judgments on the balance between the economic performance and the social performance of an organization. An ethical dilemma exists when one is faced with having to make a choice among following alternative -Significant value conflict among differing interest, -Real alternative that are equally justifiable -Significant Consequences on stakeholders in the situation.

According to Rushworth Kidder, in ethical dilemma, the toughest choices are Right versus right. -Truth versus Loyalty -Individual versus Community -Short-term versus Long term -Justice versus mercy

Resolving Ethical Dilemma


The following guidelines help to resolve the issues. -Clearly define the problem. -Look on the problem from the opposite end. -Identified the source of problem. -Define your intention to how to resolve the problem. -Define your loyalty to individual/ organization. -Compare the out come of various alternative decision. -who will be affected by your decision. -What would be effected of the decision to the affected person as a whole on long term

Approaches to resolving ethical dilemmas


We have observed there are three classical approaches in resolving ethical dilemmas. a) Ends-based thinking b) Rule-based thinking c) Care-based thinking d) Virtue-based thinking

Characteristics of ethical dilemmas


Most ethical decisions have extended consequences. Most ethical decision have multiple alternatives and have to be considered. Most ethical decisions have mixed outcomes. Most ethical decision have uncertain consequences. Most ethical decisions have personal implication. Ethical decisions are not simple choice between right or wrong. It have complex judgments.

Causes of Ethical Dilemmas


A Bottom Line Orientation Short Term Traps The Ego Barrier

Causes of Ethical Dilemmas


There is no excuse for failure. Zero defects. Can do. Just do it. Tell them what they want to hear. Make the report say what they want to see.

Determining the Right Thing


Basic Approaches Kantian (Deontic) Approach Utilitarian (Consequential) Approach Virtue (Character) Approach Fairness (Justice) Approach Common-Good Approach

Kantian (Deontic or Rights) Approach


Immanuel Kant Rules or principles determine action. Emphasizes the principle over the result. The action should not be done if everyone should not do it. Can my act become universal law? People have rights: truth, privacy, and protection. People are not a means to an end, but are an end in themselves. Bottom Line: Does the action respect the moral rights of everyone?

Utilitarian (Consequential) Approach


John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham Emphasizes the results of the action. Ethical actions provide the best balance of good over evil. An act is right if and only if it results in as much good as any available alternative. Bottom Line: The greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Virtue (Character) Approach


Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas Emphasizes character. Character traits or virtues enable us to reach our highest potential. A virtuous person is an ethical person. What kind of person should I be? Bottom Line: People develop virtues through habit.

Fairness (Justice) Approach


Aristotle Equals should be treated equally and unequals should be treated unequally. Favoritism and discrimination are unjust and wrong. Bottom Line: How fair is the action? Does it treat everyone the same way, or does it show favoritism or discrimination?

Common-Good Approach
Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, John Rawls Veil of Ignorance Those that make decisions should be blind to personal gain. We are all members of the same community. Bottom Line: What is good for individuals is based on what is good for the community as a whole.

What Are Values?, cont.


Values indicate desirable or preferred end-states or corrective goals or explicable purposes, and values are standards in terms of which specific criteria may be established and choices made among alternatives. James MacGregor Burns, Leadership, p. 74

What Are Values?, cont.


Value systems provide an overall frame of reference for goal setting; they are normative views held by individuals (consciously or subconsciously) of what is good or desirable. Values provide standards by which people are influenced by their choice of action. French, Kast, and Rosenzwig, Understanding Human Behavior in Organizations, p. 69

What Are Values?, cont.


Values are the deep seated, pervasive standards that influence every aspect of our lives (our moral judgments, our responses to others, our commitment to personal and organizational goals). Values set the parameters for decision making. Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge, p. 212

What Are Values?, cont.


Values are the enduring beliefs that have worth, merit, and importance for the organization. Daft, Leadership Theory and Practice, p. 192

Types of Values
Individual individuals Group formal or informal groups Organizational composite of individual, group, organizational, culture Constituents those in direct contact with the organization Cultural the entire society Understanding Human Behavior in Organizations, Kast and Rosenzweig, p. 150

Sources of Values
Religion Peers Education Parents Media Technology

Personal value system

Beliefs
Assumptions or convictions you hold as true about people, concepts, or things
People generally behave in accordance with their beliefs. As a leader, your beliefs directly impact on the leadership climate, cohesion, discipline, training, and combat effectiveness of the unit.

Norms
Rules or laws based on a groups commonly accepted beliefs or values Formal norms are official standards or laws that govern behavior.
Informal norms are unwritten rules or standards.

Army Values
Example is not the main thing in influencing others. It is the only thing. --Dr. Albert Schweitzer

Are There Universal Values?


Justice Mutual Respect Stewardship Honesty

Interfaith Declaration, British-North American Research Association The Ethical Imperative, Dalla Costa, 1990, p. 132

Are There Universal Values, cont.


Human Dignity Mutual Responsibility Economic Equity Fiscal Fairness Social Justice Environmental Integrity

The Ethical Imperative, Dalla Costa, 1990, p. 132

Basic National Values


Truth Life Liberty Equal opportunity Pursuit of happiness Justice and fairness Peace and security Responsibility

Values
Serve as our moral compass to help us find our way to the right action.

Influences on Ethical Reasoning


Laws and regulations Basic national values Army values Unit operating procedures Personal values Institutional pressures

Ethical Reasoning Process


Step 1: Define the problem. Step 2: Know the relevant rules. Step 3: Develop and evaluate courses of action. Step 4: Choose the course of action that best represents Army values.

Step 1: Define the Problem


Who said it? What was said, ordered, or demanded? Dont accept hearsay. Get the details. Remember that problems can be described in more than one way. The hardest step.

Step 2: Know the Rules


Conduct research. A seemingly ethical dilemma may in reality be a misunderstanding of a regulation or policy.

Step 3: Develop and Evaluate Courses of Action


Two Parts Develop Courses of Action
Brainstorming

Evaluate Courses
Ethical Approaches Army Values

Rotary Clubs Four Way Test


Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build good will and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned?

Step 4: Choose the Course of Action


That best represents Army Values A values-based organization provides publicized values as a framework for
expressing expectations, making decisions, and evaluating systems, processes, decisions, and employee performance

Practical Exercise
Captain Rockwood Is he using this or any ethical reasoning process? Is there a point at which his thinking becomes flawed? What is the tension for him, or what values are in conflict? What is he focused on, the actions or the end result? What solution would you have come to if faced with Rockwoods experience? How did his use or lack of use of an ethical reasoning process effect his choices?

What If Your Boss Asks You to Do Something Unethical?


Examine the facts. Turn implied request into ethical response. Never appear to be self-righteous. Expose your personal sensitivity. Remember that ethical people have the power. Be professional and ethical. Be friendly and non-threatening.

Richard Chewning, When Your Boss Asks for Something Unethical. Presbyterian Journal, 24 Dec 86, 14 Jan 87, 4 Feb 87

The Leaders Challenge


To act morally and ethically in all aspects of ones private/personal and public/professional life

Ethical Leadership
Thoughts to consider in pursuit of being an ethical leader

Ethics and Leadership


Your ability to lead flows from your individual beliefs, values, and character.

What Is Leadership?
Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes. -- Rost, Joseph C. Leadership for the Twenty-first Century.

What is the difference between ethical leadership and unethical leadership?


Is there a type of leadership that is neither ethical nor unethical?

Practical Exercise
Role-play the Parable of the Sadhu

The Parable of the Sadhu


Describe the breakdown between the individual ethic and the organizational ethic. What are some ways that we show favoritism? What is the leaders responsibility to the subordinate? What are some sources of stress on leaders and how does stress influence leaders? What part does a shared purpose, values, and a process for making decisions play in an organization?

Leaders Ethical Leadership Responsibilities


Be a role model.
Develop your subordinates ethically. Avoid creating ethical dilemmas for your subordinates.

Leaders and Followers


Either leading or following, we model ethical behavior in either role. (1) Leaders set standards of ethical behavior. (a) Define and affirm core values. (b) Provide clarity. (c) Act as standard bearers. (2) Followers embrace those standards. (a) Embrace core values. (b) Ask for direction when uncertain. (c) Meet standards.

Four Essential Character Traits of Ethical Leaders


Ability to recognize and articulate the ethics of a problem The personal courage no to rationalize away bad ethics An innate respect for others. Personal worth from ethical behavior

"Report on Ethics of American Youth" in October 1997


Set One 82% think that their parents want them to do the ethical thing no matter what the cost 78% think it is not worth it to lie, cheat or steal because it hurts your character 69% think that their school works hard on character development 68% think it is very important or essential to be ethical in all aspects of life

"Report on Ethics of American Youth" in October 1997


Set Two 93% think that being treated with respect is essential or very important 91% are satisfied with their own ethics and character 90% think that they would be listed by a friend as one of the most ethical people they know 73% think that they are more ethical than most people they know Set Three 70% had stolen something at least once in the last year 50% had cheated on at least once exam in the last year

INTEGRATING VALUES/ETHICS
INDIVIDUAL
Personal Private Values

Professional Public Ethics

Establishing an Ethical Climate


Typical Responses Gut instinct Defining the Shalt-Nots The Starting Point: explicitly articulating a personal and professional philosophy

Personal Operating Philosophy


Mission Statement Vision Statement Core Values

A Vision Statement
Vision Statement: a guiding picture of a desirable, ambitious future. Criteria for a quality vision statement: futuristic, challenging, preserves core ideology, applicable to individual or organization, inspires change, compelling, clear and concise.

A Mission Statement
Mission Statement: purpose and reason for existence. Criteria for a quality mission statement: clear and concise, consistent with values, action-oriented, measurable, drives or directs all decisions and actions.

What Are Values?


Values are the deep seated, pervasive standards that influence every aspect of our lives (our moral judgments, our responses to others, our commitment to personal and organizational goals). Values set the parameters for decision making. Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge, p. 212

A Healthy Organization
Guidelines are clear. Ethical behavior is rewarded. Levels of competition and stress are low. Expectations and standards are clearly defined. Informal norms are consistent with Army values. All rewards and punishments are fair and equal.

Developing Ethical Fitness


Three Levels of Personal Moral Development
3. Post-conventional Internalized 1. Pre-conventional Fulfills others universal principles expectations Balances concern Rulebook for self and others. Societys Self-interest obligations Independent Blind Obedience/ Law abiding Complete belief in Compliance Identification the values Acts based on reward/ Acts to become punishment a recognized (Requires member of the leaders group 2. Conventional

Internalizing Beliefs, Values, and Norms


Compliance -- Actions based on reward/punishment (Requires leaders presence.) Identification -- Actions to become a recognized member of the group Internalization -- Complete belief in the values

Soldiers Learn through Observation


Pay attention to their leaders Observe other soldiers receiving awards

See what the other soldiers did and what happened to them

Recognize our commitment to the unit

Ten Ways to Enhance Ethical Leadership


1. Establish a code of ethics. 2. Require everyone to verify that they have read and understand the code. 3. Integrate ethics into performance evaluations. 4. Recognize and reward ethical behavior. 5. Establish a confidential ethics hotline.

Ten Ways to Enhance Ethical Leadership


6. Incorporate ethics questions into surveys. 7. Show and discuss videos that deal with ethical dilemmas. 8. Launch an ethics column in the newsletter. 9. Use on-line menu-driven answers to questions about ethical problems. 10. Hold open forums on ethics with leaders.
Source: The Canadian Clearing House for Consumer and Corporate Ethics, www.interactive.york.ca/ethicsan/eem.html, as published in Nancy Croft Baker, Heightened Interest in Ethics Education Reflects Employer/Employee Concerns, Corporate University Review (May/June 1997), 6-9.

Practical Exercise
Develop your plan for establishing an ethical climate.

Ethical Climate Assessment Survey

Unit Climate Survey Materials


Army Research Institute

www.ari.army.mil

The Self-Interest Model


Hobbes people are self-centered and egotistical; primary goal is self-preservation Friedman the act of maximizing return must conform to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom. Assumes that people will be decent and the law will appropriately punish unethical behavior.

The Self-Interest Model, cont.


Purpose maximize return Contract act within laws and customs of the land Driving assumption corporate selfinterest provides the greatest return to the greatest number Primary means tangible efficiency methods

Drawbacks of the Self-Interest Model


Self-interest is ethically dysfunctional
Validates self-aggrandizement Does not create mutually beneficial approaches Focuses on results not the means

Drawbacks of the Self-Interest Model, cont.


Example: Incentive systems 1. sales performance target 2. top management bonuses dependent on meeting target 3. no one articulates the need for honesty 4. sales persons know that honesty is implied 5. But, the self-centered design of the incentive system encourages dishonesty 6. the focus is on the target and the company, not the customer

Drawbacks of the Self-Interest Model, cont.


Self-interest is not pragmatic
Its priorities do not produce excellence It filters out others It focuses on making profit not meaning It limits activities to those that reward self. Results in mediocrity

The Covenantal Business Ethic


Examples J&J baby oil (83), Lex (85) Purpose create delivered value Contract receive a beneficial return in exchange Driving assumption service to others Primary means the creation of mutually enabling relationships

Three Conditions of Ethical Problem Solving


1. Integrating ethical norms with the pursuit of economic success. 2. An other-directed attitude. 3. A business ethic must be capable of motivating pragmatic and competitive behavior.

Describing Ethical Failures


A. The Acute Dilemma situations where you do not know what is the right or wrong thing to do. B. The Acute Rationalization situations where you do know what is the right thing to do but fail to do it

Resolving Ethical Problems


The covenantal ethic is theoretically sound But we must have tools for putting it into practice internal and external External methods laws, punishment, rewards Detection alone will not deter unethical behavior

The difference between a moral man and a man of honor is that the latter regrets a discreditable act, even when it has worked and he has not been caught. H.L. Mencken

Ethical Implications of Bottom Line Orientation


McCoy and the parable of the Sadhu People ignore serious moral dilemmas Motivation by profit, high stress, and the exciting is powerful None stepped up to help because there were no shared values

The Bottom Line, cont.


What Value Am I Creating? Questioning value creation can lessen the control of the bottom line and will focus on an ethical response to quality issues, e.g., the quality of childrens shoes; Stride Rite versus discount retailer.

Questions to Ask When Grappling with Roadblocks of the Bottom Line Who might get hurt besides ourselves? Am I perpetuating a dishonest and fraudulent relationship? Whose needs am I considering in my definition of the problem? Have I tested the other persons needs directly?

Questions to Ask When Grappling with Roadblocks of the Bottom Line, cont.

How will this issue affect the companys reputation? Is this decision consistent with the values we wish to convey by the brand or company name? What language am I using to set targets for other people?

Questions to Ask When Grappling with Roadblocks of the Bottom Line, cont.
If the most desirable consequences cannot be determined, have I ensured that the procedural issues of decision making and implementation are ethical? What value am I creating? Are we in the right business and market to begin with? How will the decision affect the quality of my relationship with X?

Questions to Ask When Grappling with Roadblocks of the Bottom Line, cont.
What if the injured party to intended beneficiary were my child? Is my relationship with the end-user one of empowering or empowerment? What other motives are driving me beside the companys bottom line?

Short Term Traps


Short Term Practices Not good; must have vision Ford HP turned down defense contract because it would result in large hirings and large firings Moral failure lack of vision and reckoning

Short Term Traps, cont.


Efficiency Corrupts in Three ways
1. Undermines the need for moral thinking 2. Encourages self-delusion 3. Promotes greed

Ethics and Expediency


Problem 1 Complying with policy when there is no time; focusing on the short term Problem 2 Complying with unethical people to get the job done Problem 3 Goodwill at what cost? J&J and Tylenol

Ethics and Expediency, cont.


Problem 4 Carrying out someone elses unethical promise Problem 5 Understanding moral failures Problem 6 Life or death decisions Problem 7 Layoffs

Questions to Ask when Facing Short Term Traps


What if I knew there would be a full audit of every decision I made two years from now? What are the likely consequences of my decision one year from now? Three years from now? How will this decision affect our customers trust in us?

Questions to Ask when Facing Short Term Traps, cont.


How would the decision look if it were repeated twenty times? How many time have similar outcomes happened in the past and why? What if I had ten times as much time in which to make the decision? Would I recommend the same thing?

Questions to Ask when Facing Short Term Traps, cont.


Have I actually tried to stretch the time frame in which to complete decision making or implementation? Because of high turnover, many leaders do not have to live with their unethical decisions

Breaking the Ego Barrier


Problem 1 Determining the appropriate sales incentives Problem 2 Processing uncertain information Problem 3 Failure to face up to potentially damaging information Problem 4 Dealing with hostile criticism

Breaking the Ego Barrier, cont.


Problem 5 Keeping skunkworks ethical Problem 6 Communicating unpleasant information upward Problem 7 Regarding the technologically effective but egotistical team destroyer

Questions to Ask to Break through the Ego Barrier


What is my intention? Have I invited and tolerated dissent? Have I rubbed elbow with subordinates? What have I omitted from my analysis What if I get caught? Have I listened to other opinions? Can I tolerate hearing them directly, or only filtered through company communication channels?

Questions to Ask to Break through the Ego Barrier, cont.


Did address the facts? Precisely what value am I creating? At whose expense am I creating value? Have I articulated factual information in as objective and impartial a way as possible?

Questions to Ask to Break through the Ego Barrier, cont.


Are my decisions or behavior having a negative impact on the relationships involved? Am I rewarding ego-dominant, relationship-destroying attitudes in others? Have I laughed at myself recently?

If the corporate environment penalizes or simply threatens to penalize ethical decisions, many managers will be unwilling to apply these morals to any other frameworks. If the only choice for a manager is private moral norms or career suicide, then very few managers will have the courage to stick to their principles, and even fewer will be fully aware of how often they compromise them. Laura Nash, Good Intentions Aside

Good managers can be fooled by their own good intentions, a managerial problem-solving approach, and sometimes financial success into complacently accepting a business ethic that falls short of their private ideals. Laura Nash, Good Intentions Aside

Conclusion
Ethical leaders do the right things for the right reasons all the time, even when no one is watching. (FM 22-100)

We need to move beyond refraining to do wrong We need to incorporate a Covenantal Ethic that promotes the well-being of others.

Summary
Action: Apply the Ethical Decision Making Process as a Commander, Leader, or Staff Member.
Identified the relationship between leadership values and decision making; explained the difference between values and ethics according to FM 22-100.