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SYSC 4607 Lecture 18 Outline

Review of Previous Lecture MIMO Systems

Advantages of MIMO over SISO


Parallel Decomposition of MIMO channels Capacity of MIMO Channels

Review of Previous Lecture Variable-Rate Variable-Power MQAM

Review of Previous Lecture Spectral Efficiency in Rayleigh Fading

Review of Previous Lecture

Adaptive MQAM uses capacity-achieving power and rate adaptation, with power penalty K. Adaptive MQAM comes within 5-6 dB of capacity Discretizing the constellation size results in negligible performance loss.

Constellations cannot be updated faster than 10s to 100s of symbol times: OK for most Dopplers.
Estimation error and delay can lead to irreducible error floors.

Multiple Antennas Adding Spatial Dimension

Single-User / Multi-User Spatial Multiplexing

MIMO Principles

Array and diversity gains increase coverage and QoS Multiplexing gain increases spectral efficiency

Cochannel interference is reduced and cellular capacity increases

MIMO Principles

MIMO Principles

Narrowband MIMO System (Flat Fading Channel)

Narrowband MIMO System (Flat Fading Channel)

MIMO Systems (Flat Fading)


MIMO systems have multiple transmit and receive antennas With perfect channel estimates at Tx and Rx, decomposes into independent channels

- RH -fold capacity increase over SISO system - Demodulation complexity reduction - Can also use antennas for diversity and beamforming - Leads to capacity versus diversity tradeoff in MIMO

MIMO Performance Improvements

MIMO results in four major Performance improvements: - Array Gain - Diversity Gain - Spatial Multiplexing Gain - Interference Reduction Gain

In general it is not possible to take advantage of all the above improvements due to Conflicting demands

MIMO Performance Improvements

Array Gain
- Increase in average SNR due to coherent combining - Requires channel knowledge of transmitter and receiver - Depends on number of transmit and receive antennas

Diversity Gain
- Diversity mitigates fading in wireless links - MtMr links of independently faded channels can lead to MtMr-th order diversity as compared to SISO link (diversity order is slope of BER curve) - Can be achieved in the absence of channel knowledge at the transmitter by designing suitable transmit signals (space-time coding)

MIMO Performance Improvements

Spatial Multiplexing Gain


- Transmit independent data signals from individual antennas - Receiver can extract different streams under uncorrelated fading channel conditions rich scattering - A linear increase (in min(Mt, Mr)) in capacity for no additional power or bandwidth cost is obtained

Interference Reduction
- Differentiation between the spatial signatures of the desired channel and cochannel signals is exploited to reduce interference - Requires knowledge of desired signals channel (spatial filtering) - Smart antenna system: Beam-forming at transmitter through switched beam or adaptive array - Aggressive frequency reuse and increase in multi-cell capacity.

Combined Advantages of MIMO

Capacity of MIMO Systems

Capacity of multiple antennas at input or output (but not both) increases with the log of number of antennas, while MIMO capacity can increases LINEARLY with number of antennas.
For a full-rank channel matrix, RH - fold capacity increase is possible, where RH = min(Mt,Mr).

Capacity of MIMO Systems

Spatial Multiplexing Gain

Transmitters use same frequency and modulation Sub-streams are independent (no coding across the transmit antennas each sub-stream can be individually coded) Individual transmit powers scaled by 1/Mt , so the total power is kept constant Channel estimation burst by burst using a training sequence Requires nearindependent channel coefficients

Spatial Multiplexing Gain

MIMO Channel Parallel Decomposition

Multiplexing gain is realized through parallel decomposition: MIMO channel is decomposed to RH parallel independent channels.

MIMO Channel Parallel Decomposition


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For rich

MIMO Channel Parallel Decomposition

MIMO Channel Parallel Decomposition

Capacity of MIMO Systems


Is the sum of capacity of parallel channels Channel is static or fading Channel knowledge: CSIR, CSIT, or Channel distribution only For static channel with perfect channel knowledge at TX and RX, waterfilling over space is optimal power allocation Similar idea in fading, based on short-term or long-term power constraint Without channel knowledge, capacity is based on an outage probability

Main Points

MIMO channels greatly improve capacity and performance through array gain, diversity gain, interference reduction, and spatial multiplexing.
MIMO channel can be decomposed into RH parallel SISO channels, where RH is rank of channel matrix H. Greatest capacity improvements are obtained under rich scattering conditions (H full rank). Capacity depends on the degree of channel knowledge at transmitter and receiver