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Jerwin Mauricio Mickel Manuel Jilliane Bertiz Razhelle Lumacang

Hinduism  In Depth.

 No single historical founder.


 No unified system of belief.
 No single doctrine of salvation.
 No centralized authority.
 Diversity is its characteristic
feature.
 Ancient origins extend back
beyond the second millennium
BCE.
A Historical Overview

 Indus Valley Civilization 1500BCE


 The Aryans & Early Vedic Society
 Devotionalism
& Sectarian Worship
 Hinduism During British Colonial Rule

PHILOSOPHY
 Archeological excavations in this area
have revealed evidence of what
appears to be highly developed
urban culture.
 Excavations shows iconographic
features of Hindu Deities.
 Developed from within the Indus
Valley Culture and was not
introduced from outside.
 Sanskrit was the Aryan language.
 "Vedas“ is the corpus of texts
compiled over hundreds of years. It is
referred as the timeless revelation
and repository of all knowledge.
 Vedic Rituals were rituals of
sacrifice addressed to Gods.
 Central acts was the offering of
substances into the sacrificial fire.
 The ritual was usually initiated by a
wealthy sponsor and by ritual
specialists or priests.
Vedic Society and its fourfold
system
Brahmans- priests and ritual
specialists
Kshatriyas- warriors or rulers
Vaishyas- commoners
Shudras- servants
Pujadevotional worship
 Ritual expression of of love or
devotion to a deity .
Hindu Renaissance
 Muslim to British colonial rule
 Hinduism Reform movements paid
attention to social and ethical
concerns.
 Indian nationalist movement brought
about the independence of India as
a state in 1947.
PHILOSOPHY
 The universe has neither beginning nor
end. It is issued forth from Brahman and
will return eventually to Brahman.
 Dharma (to uphold) is to understood to be
the moral and metaphysical foundation of
the universe.
 To attain Moksha (ultimate liberation,
goal of human existence) is to attain
complete freedom from the samsaric
cycle and all of the dissatisfaction,
suffering and death- as well as the joys
and pleasures which go with it.
SACRED WRITINGS
Scriptures: Two categories:
 Sruti (heard or revealed) 
Communicated directly by God to
ancient Indian sages.
 Smriti (remembered)  Less
authoritative and consists of texts such
as Hindu epics (Ramayana and
Mahabharata), the Dharma Sutras
(book of law, concerned with customs
and correct conduct) and Puranas
(mythology).
HINDUS’BELIEFS
Many Hindus believe that the power
(shakti) of a deity is actually present
in that deity’s image (murti).
God, Gods and Goddesses
Vishnu is Shiva ”the
associated auspicious” is
with the the both the
preservation lord of yogis.
of the cosmos He has two
and its proper sons,
order. Ganesha, the
elephant
headed God
and Skanda.
 Ganesha
is widely
worshipped as
the Remover
of Obstacles
and more
generally as
Lord of
beginnings
and the Lord
of obstacles
(Vighnesha).
God, Gods and Goddesses
 Krishna is  Rama is
worshipped as worshipped as
a child as a god the ideal ruler
of erotic and the restorer
mystical love of the dharma.
and hero of the
epic
Mahabharata.
BELIEFS
 Dharma- social order
 Samsara- endless cycle of rebirth
 Karma- one’s action determine one’s
condition in this life and rebirth in the
next
 Three Paths:
Jnana (knowledge, insight,
wisdom)
Karma (action)
Bhaki (ecstatic devotion)
BELIEFS
Four Goals:
 Artha (wordly wealth and success)
 Kama (plesure, desire)
 Dharma (virtue, morality)
 Moksha (spiritual liberation)

Hindus believe that this goals are


interconnected and that no goal is
primary.
Spiritual and social harmony are ensured
through the four legitimate goals.
Worship
 The water in N India is believed to
wash away the sins of the devout
Hindus as they take their bathe.
 Cows, monkeys, snakes and rats are
believed to be sacred and therefore
worshipped.
 Men and women capable of
performing miracles who can
transform the lives of devotees and
ensure their well-being.
Festivals
 Janmashtami (July-August):celebration of the birthday of
the popular Hindu god, Krishna.
 Ganesh Chaturthi ( August-September): a festival
dedicated to the elephant-headed god, Ganesh, the
remover of obstacles.
 Dussehra (September-October towards the end of the
monsoon) making the victory of Ramaang his monkey army
over the demon-king Ravana. It encompasses Navaratri
(the festival of nine nights) which in Bengal culminates in a
grand celebration dedicated to the worhip of the goddess
Durga.
 Diwali (October-November): the festival of lights, following
shortly after Dussehra. Hindus throughout the world
illuminate their homes with lamps and exchange gifts.
 Shivaratri (January-February): a festival during which
Shiva is worshipped.
 Holi (February-March): a spring festival, during which
people drench one another in water and colored powder.
FAMILY AND SOCIETY
 Caste system determine one’s place
in society.
 Marriage was a central institution
ordering and regulating the Hindu
social system.
 Bride in Hindu communities is a gift
from her parents to the family of the
groom.
 Marry up into a family of higher
social standing than her own is
END