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ASSIMILATION

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DEFINITION
Assimilation is something which varies in extend according to speaking rate and style. (Peter Roach) Assimilation is when one sound is influenced and changed by a neighbouring sound.

Assimilation is more like to be found in rapid, casual speech and less likely in slow, careful speech.

KINDS OF ASSIMILATION
Assimilation of Place Assimilation of Manner Assimilation of Voice

Assimilation of Place
Assimilation of Place is most clearly observable

in some cases where a final consonant with alveolar place of articulation is followed by an initial consonant with a place of articulation that is not alveolar.
Example : Ratbag /rtbg/ /rpbg/

( This is because the alveolar plosive /t/ is simplified into the /p/ sound which is closer to the bilabial plosive /b/)

Assimilation of Manner
Assimilation of Manners is refers to when two

different manners of articulation influence each other to form a different type of manner of articulation. The change in manner is most likely to be towards an easier consonant which makes less obstruction to the air flow.
/ gn nat /

Example : Good Night /gd nat/

( This is because the final plosive /d/ becomes a nasal /n/)

Assimilation of Voice
Assimilation of voice is found across word boundaries and then only of one type. (regressive assimilation)
Example : - Cats - Jumps - Dogs - Runs /kts/ /dmps/ /dgz/ /rnz/

( Assimilation of Voice with the suffixes s and z. When verb carries a third person singular -s suffix, or a noun carries an -s plural suffix, that suffix will be pronounced as s if the preceding consonant is voiceless and as z if the preceding consonant is voiced.

Assimilation Rules

Definition

Regressive Assimilation
If the phoneme changes to match the following phoneme, the phoneme that comes first is affected by the one that comes after it.
VC1C2V VC2C2V

Progressive Assimilation
If the phoneme changes to match the preceding phoneme, the phoneme that comes first is affected by the one that comes before it.
VC1C2V VC1C1V

Assimilation Rules

Example

Regressive Assimilation
Regressive assimilation in English is that of alveolar consonants, such as t, d, s, z, n, which are followed by non-alveolar consonants: assimilation results in a change of place of articulation from alveolar to a different place.

/t /
/t/ becomes [p] before bilabial consonant that person / t p:sn/ [p p:sn] light blue /laIt blu:/ [laIp blu:] /t/ becomes dental plosive before dental consonant cut trough /kt ru:/ [kt ru:] get those /get z/ [get z]

/t/ becomes [k] before velar consonant that case /t kes/ [k kes] quite good /kwat gd/ [kwak gd]

/s/ and /z/


/s/ becomes [] and /z/ becomes [] when followed by // or /j/ this shoe those years /s u:/ /z jz/ [ u:] [ jz]

/d/
/d/ is pronounced as [b,n, and g] before /b,n, and g/ good night good boy good girl / gd nat/ /gd b/ /gd g:l/ [gn nat] [gb b] [gg g:l]

/n/ is pronounced as
[m] before a labial consonant [] [n]

before a velar consonant

everywhere else

I can ask I can see I can bake I can play I can go I can come

/ kn sk/ / kn si/ / kn bek/ / kn ple/ / kn go/ / kn km/


phonemic form

[ kn sk] [ kn si] [ km bek] [ km ple] [ k go] [ k km]


phonetic form

Progressive assimilation
Progressive assimilation is exemplified by: A verb carries a third person singular -s suffix Or, noun carries an -s plural suffix Or, an -s possesive suffix which is pronounced with a voiced z after a voiced consonant (e.g. dogs [dgz]; runs [rnz]; Pams [pmz]) but with a voiceless s after a voiceless consonant (e.g. cats [kts]; jumps[dmps]; Pats [pts] ).

EXCERCISES
When a /d/ is followed by a /b/ or /p/, it usually changes into a /b/ sound.
Good boy /gb b/ Good pearl /gb pl/

When a /t/ is followed by a /b/ or a /p/, it usually changes into a /p/ sound.
That person Light blue /p psn/ /lap blu/

STYLE AND FORMALITY


Assimilation found in non-formal conversation or in generally speaking. Assimilation generally found in rapid speech. It always used in Casual, Intimate, or Close conversation. The reason for assimilation is because the tongue cannot always move quickly enough to get from one position to another in order to articulate the next sound.