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Neurological Disorders Lesson 2.2 - Differentiated How do our neurons signal electrically?

Electrical Signal

Do Now:
Ethan needs to have a cavity filled. Before his doctor begins drilling, she gives him Novocain to prevent pain. How do you think Novocain works???
Novocain stops our neurons from signaling electrically. But how do our neurons signal electrically???

Neurons Send Signals

Electrical Signal Chemical Signal

Electrical Signal Chemical Signal

Electrical Signal

Chemically via synapses Electrically via axons

What is the Action Potential?


The action potential is how neurons send signals electrically down their axons. Neurons do this by using the potential energy stored in their membrane potentials.

Electrical Signal

First, what is electricity?


The flow of charged particles also known as ions. But, can ions just flow into the axon?? No!

Na+

The Axons Ion Channels and Pumps


The axon has ion channels and pumps that act as doors through which ions enter and exit the axon.

These channels and pumps allow ONLY specific ions to flow or be pumped through them.

The Axons Ion Channels and Pumps


Voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channel Voltage-gated potassium (K+) channel Na+/K+ Pump

Allow Na+ to flow through.

Allow K+ to flow through.

Pump Na+ out of and K+ into the axon.

But wait, what does Voltage-gated mean?


Voltage-gated means that the channel opens at a specific voltage. This means that the voltage of the membrane is like a key that opens the channel.

The Axons Ion Channels and Pumps


Voltage-gated Na+ channel Voltage-gated K+ channel Na+/K+ Pump

Open when the membrane potential is at -50 mV

Open when the membrane potential is at +40 mV

Keep this in mind for later

The Axons Membrane Potential


Refers to the potential energy stored at the membrane. There is potential energy because there is a charge difference between the inside and the outside of the axon.

The Axons Membrane Potential


At rest
Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+

More Na+ outside

Na+

K+

K+

More K+ inside
K+

More negatively charged proteins

The Axons Membrane Potential


At rest
Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

++++

- - - K+ K+ K+

- 70mV

The Axons Membrane Potential


At rest

The Action Potential


After stimulation
Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ K+

+ +

Na+ K+

Does anyone remember the voltage at which the voltage-gated Na+ channels open? -50 mV - Threshold

The Action Potential


After stimulation
0 mV

Depolarization
- 50 mV - 70 mV

The Action Potential


After depolarization
K+ K+ K+

Na+

Na+ K+

Na+
K+

Na+ Na+

K+

Does anyone remember the voltage at which the voltage-gated K+ channels open? + 40 mV

The Action Potential


After depolarization
40 mV 0 mV

Depolarization
- 50 mV - 70 mV

Hyperpolarization

The Action Potential


After hyperpolarization
K+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+
Na+

K+ K+

K+

How does the axon return to its resting membrane potential with Na+ outside and K+ inside? Na+/K+ Pump moves Na+ out and K+ into the axon.

The Action Potential


After hyperpolarization
40 mV 0 mV

Depolarization
- 50 mV - 70 mV

Hyperpolarization

Modeling the Action Potential along the length of the axon


Black-eye pea = Na+ ion

Outside Inside Blue toothpick = Na+ ion channel Red toothpick = K+ ion channel Black toothpick = Na+/K+ Pump

Lima bean = K+ ion

The Action Potential along the Axon

How does Novocain work?


Novocain inhibits the voltage-gated Na+ channels.

PAIN

No Signal

What happens if the voltage-gated Na+ channels cant open?


The axon cant send Action Potentials. Meaning you cant feel pain!

Homework: The Stages of the Action Potential


Write a summary of what is happening at each stage of the action potential.
3.

2.

4.

1.

5.

The Stages of the Action Potential


3. The voltage-gated Na+ channel closes and the voltage-gated K+ channel opens.

2. The voltage-gated Na+ channel opens. Na+ enters the axon. Depolarization.

4. K+ ions leave the axon. Hyperpolarization.

1. The membrane is at rest. More Na+ is outside the cell.

5. The Na+/K+ pump restores the resting membrane potential by pumping Na+ out and K+ in.