Sie sind auf Seite 1von 150

Engineering/Applied Chemistry

CODE NO: 07A1BS07/07A1BS04


I B.TECH
MECHNICAL/CIVIL ENGINEERING
Unit No: I
Nos. of slides: 150
Engineering/Applied Chemistry
Water Technology-I
Term: 2008-09

Unit-1 Power Point Presentations


Text Books:
• A text book of Engineering Chemistry by
Jain & Jain,
• Chemistry of Engineering Materials by C.P.
Murthy, C.V. Agarwal and A. Naidu
INDEX
UNIT-I PPTS
Srl. Module as per Lecture PPT
No. Session Planner No. Slide No.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Introduction L-1 L1-1 to L1-19
2. Hardness & Units L-2 L2-1 to L2-28
3. Estimation of Hardness by EDTA L-3 L3-1 to L3-18
4. Problems on Hardness L-4 L4-1 to L4-18
5. Analysis of water L-5 L5-1 to L5-19
6. Methods for treatment of water (Domestic) L-6,7 L6,7-1 to L6,7-33
INTRODUCTION

• Water is the most abundant and useful


compound essential for survival of all
plants and animals.
• It is used for various industrial purposes
also

L1-1
SOURCES

• Rain water
• River water
• Lake water
• Sea water
• Underground water-spring and well water

L1-2
Effect of water on rocks and
minerals:
• Dissolution: some mineral constituents of rocks
such as NaCl and CuSO4.2H2O readily dissolve
in water.
• Hydration: Some minerals are easily hydrated
with the consequent increase in volume leading
to disintegration of the rocks in which these
minerals are present. Eg.
• CaSO4 Hydration  CaSO4.2H2O
(Gypsum)
• Mg2SiO4 Mg2SiO4.XH2O (Serpentine)
L1-3
Effect of water on rocks and minerals:

• Effect of dissolved oxygen: This leads to


oxidation and Hydration
• Fe3O4 Fe2O3 3 Fe2O3.2H2O(Limonite)

• 2FeS2 + 7O2 + 2H2O 2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4


• Effect of dissolved CO2: Water containing
dissolved CO2 converts the insoluble carbonate
of calcium, Magnesium and iron into their
relatively soluble bicarbonates.
• CaCO3 + H2O + CO2  Ca(HCO3)2
L1-4
Types of Impurities
present in water:

The natural water is usually


contaminated by different
types of impurities.

L1-5
They are mainly 3 types..

1. Physical impurities
2. Chemical impurities
3. Biological impurities

L1-6
PHYSICAL IMPURITIES:

1. Colour
2. Turbidity
3. Taste
4. odour

L1-7
Colour

Colour in water is
caused by metallic
substances like
salts.
L1-8
Turbidity

is due to the colloidal,


extremely fine suspensions
such as insoluble
substances like clay, slit,
and micro-organisms.

L1-9
Taste

presence of dissolved minerals


in water produces taste. Bitter
taste can be due to the
presence of Fe, Al, Mn,
Sulphates, lime. Soap taste can
be due to the presence of large
amount of sodium bicarbonate.
L1-10
Odour

In water is undesirable
for domestic as well as
industrial purpose.

L1-11
CHEMICAL IMPURITIES:

In-organic chemicals
Organic chemicals

L1-12
Inorganic chemicals:

1. Cations: Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+,


K+, Fe+2, Al+3, Zn+2, Cu+2

2. Anions:Cl-, SO-2, NO3-,


HCO3-, F-, NO2-

L1-13
Organic chemicals

dyes, paints, petroleum


products, pesticides,
detergents, drugs textile
materials, other organic
related materials.

L1-14
Acidity

surface and ground water attains


acidity from industrial wastes
like acid, mine, drainage,
pickling liquors, usually acidity
caused by the presence of free
CO2, mineral acids, and weakly
dissociated acids.
L1-15
Gases
All natural waters contains dissolved
atmosphere CO2, O2, NH3 gases,
pollutant and sewage water
contains nitrogen in the form of
nitrogenous organic compounds
and urea , which are partially
converted into NH3.

L1-16
Mineral matters

have organs from rocks and


industrial effluents. These
include mineral acids, Ca+2,
Mg+2, Na+, K+, Fe+2, Al+3,
Zn+2, Cu+2, Mn+2, Cl-, SO-2,
NO3-, HCO3-, F-, NO3-, SiO2

L1-17
BIOLOGICAL IMPURITES

• Biological impurities are Algae,


pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses,
pathogens, parasite-worms, etc.
the source of these contamination
is discharge of domestic and
sewage wastes, excreta, etc.

L1-18
A. Micro-organisms: algae, fungi, viruses,
etc.
B. Water bodies in water include 1. Bacteria,
organisms’ inhabitating the bottom sludge,
and 2. Organisms and planktons
developed at the water surfaces. These
are inhibitated by different groups of
worms like flat worms, hair worms, tiny
roundworms, oligochetes, etc.

L1-19
HARDNESS
OF
WATER
L2-1
Definition
• Hardness of water defined as
which prevent the lathering of
soap.

• This is due to presence of in water


of certain salts of Ca+2, Mg+2 and
other Heavy metals dissolved in it.
L2-2
Soap

• Soaps are Sodium or


Potassium salts of Higher fatty
acids like Oleic acid or Palmitic
acid or stearic acids.

L2-3
SODIUM STEAREATE
formulae is….

C17H35COONa

L2-4
POTASSIM STEARATE
formulae is….

C17H35COOK

L2-5
SOAP with HARDWATER
REACTIONS

2C17H35COONa+CaCl2

(C17H35COO)2Ca+2NaCl
L2-6
2C17H35COONa+MgSO4

(C17H35COO)2Mg+Na2SO4
L2-7
Types of Hardness

Hardness of water is mainly TWO types

1.Temporary Hardness
2. Permanent Hardness
L2-8
Temporary Hardness

Temporary Hardness is mainly


caused by Bicarbonates of
Calcium, Magnesium and other
heavy metals.

L2-9
Temporary Hardness mainly
caused by the presence of
dissolved Bicarbonates of
Calcium, Magnesium and
other Heavy metals and the
carbonate of Iron.

L2-10
Temporary hardness of water
mainly responsible salts are…

Calcium bicarbonate
Ca(HCO3)2
Magnesium bicarbonate
Mg(HCO3)2
L2-11
Temporary Hardness can be
largely removed by mere
Boiling of water.

L2-12
Equations
Ca(HCO3)2
Calcium bicarbonate

Heat

CaCO3+H2O+CO2
L2-13
When bicarbonates are
decomposed a, yielding
insoluble carbonates or
hydroxides, which are
deposited as a crust at the
bottom of vessel.

L2-14
Mg(HCO3)2
Magnesium bicarbonate

Heat

L2-15
Mg(OH)2+2CO2
Temporary Hardness is also
known as….

3.Carbonate Hardness
4. Alkaline Hardness
L2-16
Permanent hardness

It is due to the presence of


dissolved Chlorides and
sulphates of Calcium,
Magnesium , Iron and other
metals.
L2-17
L2-18
Permanent hardness responsible
salts are….
• CaCl2
• MgCl2
• CaSO4
• MgSO4
• FeSO4
• Al2(SO4)3
L2-20
Permanent Hardness
cannot removed by
boiling
but it can be removed by
the use of chemical
agents.
L2-21
Permanent Hardness
also known as….

• Non-Carbonate Hardness
• Non-Alkaline Hardness

L2-22
Differences between
Temporary
and

Permanent
Hardness
L2-23
Differences between Temporary
and Permanent Hardness
• Temporary • Permanent hardness
Hardness is mainly is due to the
caused by presence of
Bicarbonates of dissolved Chlorides
Calcium, and sulphates of
Magnesium and Calcium,
other heavy metals. Magnesium , Iron
and other metals

L2-24
Differences between Temporary
and Permanent Hardness

• Calcium bicarbonate
• CaCl2
• MgCl2
Ca(HCO3)2 • CaSO4
• Magnesium bicarbonate
• MgSO4
Mg(HCO3)2 • FeSO4
• Al2(SO4)3

L2-25
Differences between Temporary
and Permanent Hardness

1. Carbonate Hardness • Non-Carbonate


2. Alkaline Hardness Hardness
• Non-Alkaline Hardness

L2-26
Differences between Temporary
and Permanent Hardness

• Temporary • Permanent
Hardness can be Hardness cannot
largely removed by removed by boiling
mere Boiling of but it can be
water. removed by the use
of chemical agents.

L2-27
Assignment work
• Distinguish between Temporary and Permanent
Hardness of water.

• Explain the terms Temporary and permanent


hardness of water.

• Write a short notes on hardness of water.

L2-28
L2-29
ES TIMA TION OF
HAR DNES S BY

EDT A M ET HOD

L3-1
T he har dne ss of water
is not a pol lu tion
par am eter but
indi ca te the ea ter
quali ty i n ter ms of
Cal ci um and
ma gnesi um expr essed
L3-2
in t er ms o f CaC O3.
T he a nal ysis is d one
by c omplex me tric
tit r atio n usin g
st andar d ED TA and
EBT a s an in dic ator.

L3-3
PRI NC IP LE:

In t his comp le x
metric Tit r ation, the
wate r sa mple i s
titr ated w ith
st andar d so lutio n o f
Di so diu m sa lt o f
L3-4
EDT A usin g EBT
PR OC EDUR E:
To 50 mL of sampl e ad d
10-15 mL buf fer sol uti ons
adj ust the pH about 10
and then war m the
sol uti on. A dd 2 dr ops o
Eri oc hrome Bl oc k- T and it
is tit r ated with 0. 01 M
EDT A sol uti on changes its
colour f rom r ed- wine to
L3-5
REA CT IO NS
INV OL VED :
EBT indica tor w hen ad ded
to har d w ater a t pH = 10,
for ms w eak comple xes
with calci um a nd
ma gnesi um pr esent in
har d w ater . It r esults in
the f or ma tion of Ca-EBT
or M g-E BT comple xes
w hic h is wine-r ed, these
L3-6
ar e u nsta ble.
Duri ng ti tr ati on with
ED TA, cal ci um fir st
reacts to f or m
rel ati vel y sta bl e
foll owed by ma gnesiu m
to gi ve Mg- EDTA +2
compl ex rel easi ng the
fr ee indi ca tor (bl ue) the
col our changes fr om
win e-r ed to bl ue at the
L3-7
EDTA COMPLEX
STRUCTURE

L3-8
Pr epar ation of st andar d
har d w ate r :
di ssol ve 1g of pur e, dr y
CaCO 3 i n mini mum
quan ti ty of di l.H Cl and
then eva por ate the
sol ution to dr yness on a
water ba th. Di ssol ve the
r esi due in di sti ll ed wate r
to mak e 1 Liter soluti on.
Eac h mL of thi s soluti on
L3-9
thus contain s 1mg of
CaCO 3 equal ent har dness.
1 mL h ar d w ater
so lu tio n = 1mg o f
Ca CO 3 e quale nt
har dness.

L3-10
Pr epar ation o f EDT A
so lu tion:
Disso lv e 4 g of pur e
EDT A cr ystals +
0.lg MgCl2 i n 1
Liter o f dist il le d
wate r.

L3-11
Pr epar ation o f EDT A
so lu tion:
Di ssol ve 4 g of
pur e EDTA
cr ystal s + 0.l g
MgCl 2 i n 1 Li ter
of di stilled water .
L3-12
EDTA STRUCTURE

L3-13
EDTA STRUCTURE

L3-14
EDTA STRUCTURE

L3-15
Pr epar ation o f
Indic ator (EB T):
Di ss ol ve 0. 5 g of
Erioc hr om e B lac k-
T in 100mL
alcohol .

L3-16
FORMULAE OF EBT

L3-17
Pr epar ation o f Bu f fer
so lu tion:
add 6 7.5g o f NH 4Cl
to 5 70 mL of Con.
Am mo nia so lu tio n
and th en d ilu te
wit h d ist il le d w ate r
to 1 Lit r e.
L3-18
Standar diza tion of EDT A
so lu tion:
Rinse and fill the burette with
EDTA solution. Pipette out 50
mL of standard hard water in a
conical flask. Add 10-15 mL of
buffer solution and 4 to 5 drops
indicator. Titrate with EDTA
solution till wine-red colour
changes to clear blue. Let
volume used by V1 mL.
L3-19
Titr atio n o f Un known
Ha r d w ate r :

Ti tr ate 50 mL of wate r
sampl e just in Step- 5.
let vol ume used be
V2 mL.

L3-20
Titr atio n o f
Per manent h ar dness:
take 250 mL o f t he w ater sample
in a l ar ge b eaker. B oil i t. T ill
the v olume is r educed to a bout
50 mL, filte r it , w ash th e
precip ita te wi th d ist il le d
water, colle cting f iltr ate and
washin g i n a 2 50 mL measuring
fla sk. F inall y ma keup the
volu me to 2 50 m L wi th d istil le d
wate r. T hen, titrate 50 mL o f
boil ed water s ample ju st a s i n
Ste p (5 ). L et volume u sed b y
L3-21 V3 mL.
Calculations

L3-22
V1 mL of EDTA is consumed by 50 mL
standard hard water.

50 mL of standard hard water = V1 mL


of EDTA

50 * 1 mg of CaCO3 = V1 mL of EDTA

1 mL of EDTA =50/V1 mg of CaCO3 eq.

L3-23
Now 50 mL of given/ unknown hard
water =V2 mL of EDTA

V2*50/V1 mg of CaCO3
eq.
1 Lt or 1000 mL of given hard water
= 1000*V2/V1 mg of CaCO3
eq.
Total hardness of water
= 1000*V2/V1 mg/L
1 mg/L = 1ppm so,

= 1000*V2/V1 ppm
L3-24
Now 50 mL of boiled water
= V3 mL of EDTA

= V3*50/V1 mg of
CaCO3 eq.
1000 mL of boiled water
= 1000*V3/V1 mg of
CaCO3 eq.

= 1000*V3/V1 ppm
So,
Permanent hardness =
1000*V3/V1 ppm
L3-25
Temporary hardness =
[Total hardness – Permanent
hardness]

= 1000*V2/V1 – 1000*V3/V1

= 1000[(V2-V3)/ V1] ppm

L3-26
• Total har dness of water
= 1000* V2/ V1 pp m
• Per manent har dness =
1000*V 3/ V1 ppm
• Temp or ar y har dness =
1000[( V2- V3)/ V1] ppm

L3-26
Ad va nta ges
of EDT A
me thod:
L3-27
T hi s method is def initel y
pr ep ar abl e to the other
me thods, b ec ause of
the
1. Gr ea ter accur ac y
2. C on ven ience and
3. Mor e r api d p rocedur e
L3-28
Assignment

• Discuss the EDTA method


for the determination of
permanent hardness of
water.

L3-29
EDTA & HARDNESS
problems

L4-1
EDTA problems
• 1 g of CaCO3 was dissolved in dil.HCl and
diluted to 1000 mL. 50 mL of this solution
required 48 mL of EDTA solution for
titration. 50 mL of hard water sample
required 15 mL of EDTA solution for
titration. 50 mL of same water sample on
boiling, filtering etc, required 10 mL of
EDTA solution. Calculate the different
kinds of hardness in ppm.
L4-2
50 mL of standard hard water = V1 mL of
EDTA
V1= 48
50 mL of sample hard water = V2 mL of
EDTA
V2= 15
50 mL of after boiling sample hard water =
V3 mL of EDTA
V3= 10

L4-3
• Total hardness of water = 1000XV2/V1
= 1000 X 15/48
=312.5 ppm
• Permanent hardness = 1000XV3/V1
= 1000 X 10/48
= 208.3 ppm
• Temporary hardness = 1000[(V2-V3)/ V1]
= 1000 X (15-10)/48)
= 104.16 ppm

L4-4
EDTA problems
• 50 ml of a sample of hardwater was
titrated against 0.01 M EDTA, required 48
ml of EDTA for titration. 50 ml of the same
hardwater after boiling and filtering etc.
required 35ml of the EDTA for titration.
Calculate the total and temporary
hardness of water in degree clark.

L4-5
50 mL of standard hard water = V1 mL of
EDTA
V1= 50
50 mL of sample hard water = V2 mL of
EDTA
V2= 48
50 mL of after boiling sample hard water =
V3 mL of EDTA
V3= 35

L4-6
• Total hardness of water = 1000XV2/V1
= 1000 X 48/50
= 960 ppm
• Permanent hardness = 1000XV3/V1
= 1000 X 35/50
= 700 ppm
• Temporary hardness = 1000[(V2-V3)/ V1]
= 1000 X (15-10)/48)
= 260 ppm

L4-7
• Total hardness of water = 960 ppm
In Clarks 960 X 0.07 =67.2 0Cl

• Permanent hardness = 700 pp


In Clarks 700 X 0.07 = 49 0Cl

• Temporary hardness = 260 ppm


In Clarks 260 X 0.07 =18.2 0Cl

L4-8
Hardness problems
• Calculate the temporary, permanent and
total hardness in mg/litre of a sample of
water containing the following salts :-
Mg(HCO3)2 = 14.6mg/litre; Ca(HCO3)2
=16.2 mg/litre MgCl2 = 9.5mg/litre; CaSO4
= 13.6 mg/litre ( Assume the atomic mass
of Ca to be 40 and that of Mg to be 24).

L4-9
S.No. Constituent Amount MF CaCO3
mg/lit equivale
nt
1 CaSO4 13.6 100/136 10

2 MgCl2 9.5 100/95 10

3 Ca(HCO3)2 16.2 100/162 10

4 Mg(HCO3)2 14.6 100/146 10

L4-10
• Temporary Hardness = Ca(HCO3)2 +
Mg(HCO3)2
= 10 + 10 = 20 ppm
= 20 ppm = 20 mg/L
• Permanent Hardness = CaSO4 + MgCl2
= 10 +10 = 20 ppm
= 20 ppm = 20 mg/L
Total hardness = Temporary + permanent
hardness
= 20 + 20 = 40 ppm
= 40 ppm = 40 mg/L
L4-11
Hardness problems
• 2 litres of water obtained from a borewell in
Patancheru near Hyderabad gave the following
analysis for salts :- FeSO4 = 30.4 mg; CaSO4 =
13.6mg; MgCl2 = 38 mg;Ca(HCO3)2 = 32.4 mg;
Mg(HCO3)2 = 14.6mg; NaCl = 11.7 mg. Find out
the total hardness of water in ppm units, giving
temporary and permanent hardness assuming
the atomic mass of Fe to be 56, that of Ca to be
40, that of Mg to be 24 and that of Na to be 23.

L4-12
S.No. Constituent Amount MF CaCO3
mg/lit equivale
nt
1 FeSO4 30.4 100/152 20

2 CaSO4 13.6 100/136 10

3 MgCl2 38 100/95 40

4 Ca(HCO3)2 32.4 100/162 20

5 Mg(HCO3)2 14.6 100/146 10

6 NaCl 11.7 --- --


L4-13
• Temporary Hardness = Ca(HCO3)2 +
Mg(HCO3)2
= 20 + 10 = 30 ppm

• Permanent Hardness = FeSO4 + CaSO4 +


MgCl2
= 20 +10 +40 = 70 ppm

Total hardness = Temporary + permanent


hardness
= 30 + 70 = 100 ppm

L4-14
Hardness problems
• Determine the total hardness of a
sample of water in 0Fr and 0Clarke which
showed the following analysis :-
Suspended matter = 100 mg; Ca(NO3)2
= 16.4 mg/litre; MgSO4 = 24 mg/litre;
MgCl2 = 19 mg/litre; NaOH = 40 mg/litre;
KOH = 56 mg/litre ( At. Masses of Na =
23, Mg = 24, K = 39 and Ca = 40.)

L4-15
S.No. Constituent Amount MF CaCO3
mg/lit equivalent

1 Ca(NO3)2 16.4 100/164 10

2 MgSO4 24 100/120 20

3 MgCl2 19 100/95 20

4 NaOH 40 - -

5 KOH 56 - -

L4-16
• Temporary Hardness = Ca(NO3)2 = 10
ppm

• Permanent Hardness = MgSO4 + MgCl2


= 20 +20 = 40 ppm

Total hardness = Temporary + permanent


hardness
= 10 + 40 = 50 ppm

L4-17
• Total hardness of water = 50 ppm
In Clarks 50 X 0.07 = 3.5 0Cl
In French 50 X 0.1 = 5 0Fr
• Permanent hardness = 40 pp
In Clarks 40 X 0.07 = 2.8 0Cl
In French 40 X 0.1 = 4 0Fr
• Temporary hardness = 10 ppm
In Clarks 10 X 0.07 = 0.7 0Cl
In French 10 X 0.1 = 1 0Fr

L4-18
ANALYSIS OF WATER

 Alkalinity
 Estimation of Chlorides
 Estimation of Dissolved Oxygen

L5-1
1. ALKALINITY:
 Alkalinity of water is due to the presence of
carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and
magnesium. So the carbonate and bicarbonates in
water can be determined by titrating the solution
with standard acid like N/50 H2SO4 using first
Phenolphthalein and later methyl orange as an
indicator conversion of carbonates into
bicarbonates occur.
 In the II step to the solution using methyl orange as
indicator (pH 4.2 to 5.4) bicarbonates present in the
water and bicarbonates formed from carbonates
gets neutralized.
 The alkalinity of water is attributed to the presence
of the 100 Caustic alkalinity (due to hydroxide &
carbonate ions)
 Temporary hardness (due to Bicarbonate ions)
L5-2
Analysis of water
 PROCEDURE: Pipette out 100 mL of
the water sample in a clean titration
flask. Add to it 2 to 3 drops of a
phenolphthalein indicator. Run in
N/50 H2SO4 from burette. Till the
pink colour is just dis-charged. Then
to the same pink colour reappears.

L5-3
Analysis of water
 CALCULATION:
 let volume of acid used to phenolphthalein endpoint
= V1 mL
And
 Extra volume of acid used to Methyl orange endpoint
= V2 mL
 Phenolphthalein alkalinity P= V1 x 50 x 1000000 =
10 V1 ppm
 50 x 100 x 1000
 Methyl orange alkalinity M = (V1+V2) x 50 x
1000000 = 10(V1+V2) ppm
 50 x 100 x 1000

L5-4
ESTIMATION
OF
CHLORIDES
IN WATER
L5-5
 The chloride ions are present in
water in the form of one or more of
the compounds like CaCl2, MgCl2,
NaCl etc.
 The estimation of chloride ions
is generally made by titrating the
water sample against a standard
solution of silver nitrate using
potassiumchromate as indicator.
 The added silvernitrate precipitate
chloride ions as white precipitate
of silverchoride,
L5-6
as per the following chemical
reactions..

NaCl + AgNO3  AgCl +


NaNO3

Cl- + Ag+  AgCl

L5-7
 When all the chlorine ions are
removed as AgCl ppt, the excess
drop of silvernitrate reacts with
potassiumchromate forming
silverchromate, which is red in colour.

K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3  Ag2CrO4 +


2KNO3

CrO4-2 + 2Ag+  Ag2CrO4

L5-8
 The endpoint is therefore
the change in colour from
bright yellow due to brick
red colour due to
formation of Ag2CrO4
indicator. Then titrate it
against N/50 AgNO3
solution till the colour
changes from yellow to
L5-9
permanent brick-red.
Calculation:
Let volume of N/50 AgNO3 used = V
mL

 50 x Normality of free chlorine = V x


[N/50]

 Strength of free chlorine = V x 35.5 x


1000000
25 x 100 x
1000
L5-10
= 14.2 x V
DISSOLVED
OXYGEN

L5-11
The oxidation of KI by dissolved
Oxygen determines the amount of
dissolved Oxygen in water. Iodine
is titrated with standard
sodiumthiosulphate solution using
starch as final indicator. The
dissolved molecular Oxygen in
water does not react with KI. So,
an oxygen carrier is used to bring
about the reaction between
Oxygen and KI. Hence manganese
hydroxide is produced as a result
L5-12
 2KOH + MnSO4  Mn(OH)2 +
K2SO4
 2Mn(OH)2 + O2  2 MnO(OH)2
 MnO(OH)2 + H2SO4  MnSO4 +
2H2O + [O]
 2KI + H2SO4 + [O]  K2SO4 +
H2O + I2
 2Na2S2O3 + I2  2NaI + Na2S4O6

L5-13
 The presence of sulphates,
nitrates, etc.
in rain water gives wrong results
in determination of dissolved
Oxygen in water because these
ions also liberates Iodine from KI.
In order to prevent the liberation
of Iodine solution from nitrate, If
present in water, sodium-azide
(NaN3) is added to the alkaline
Iodide solution.
L5-14
This reacts with nitrates and
gives..

 2NaN3 + H2SO4  2HN3 +


Na2SO4

 HNO2 + HN3  N20 + N2 +


H2O

L5-15
PROCEDURE:
250 mL of water is taken in bottle preventing
it to contact with air.
2 mL of Manganoussulphate solution is added
by means of pipette, and also 2 mL of
alkalineiodine solution is also added.
Shake the bottle thoroughly, and repeat the
process thrice.
The ppt is allowed to settle half-way and mix
again.

L5-16
PROCEDURE:
Then add to it Conc. H2SO4 insert the stopper
and shake the bottle again allow the yellow
solution to stand for 5 min.

Withdraw 100 mL of solution and titrate it


against N/100 solution (Na2S2O3 solution)
using freshly prepared starch as indicator.

The endpoint will be the disappearance of


blue- colour.

L5-17
When the volume of
Thiosulphate is V mL
then dissolved oxygen
content in water is 8 V
ppm.

L5-18
Assignment
 Write a short notes on
b. Estimation of Chlorides
c. Estimation of Dissolved Oxygen

L5-19
Methods of Treatment
of
Water
for
Domestic Purposes

L6,7-1
Methods of Treatment of
Water for Domestic Purposes
is mainly 3 types,

they are..
 SEDIMENTATION
 Chemical coagulation
 FILTRATION

L6,7-2
SEDIMENTATION
 Sedimentation is the process of removing
large suspended particles at the bottom of
the reservoir. Which are collected due to
gravity.

 Sedimentation is the process of allowing to


stand undisturbed in big tanks, about 5M
deep, when most of the suspended particles
settle down at the bottom, due to the force
of gravity. The clear supernatant water is
then drawn from tank with the help of
pumps. The retention period in a
sedimentation tank ranges from 2-6 hours.

L6,7-3
SEDIMENTATION
 In order to carry out the sedimentation process
successfully, some of the chemicals are added to
water before sedimentation. These chemicals are
called Coagulants.

 The coagulants when added to water, form an


insoluble gelatinous, flocculent precipitates, which
descends through the water and mixes-up into very
fine suspended impurities forming bigger impurities
forming bigger impurities or flocs, which easily settles
down.

 Some of the coagulants used for sedimentation


process are alum, ferrous sulphate, sodium aluminate
etc.

L6,7-4
SEDIMENTATION TANK

L6,7-5
SEDIMENTATION TANK

L6,7-6
SEDIMENTATION TANK

L6,7-7
SEDIMENTATION TANK

L6,7-8
Chemical coagulants:

Alum: K2SO4. Al2(SO4)3. 24H2O


NaAlO2
FeSO4

L6,7-9
•Alum is the most widely used in water treatment plants.

Al2(SO4)3 + Ca(HCO3)2  2Al(OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6CO2

NaAlO2 + 2H2O  Al(OH)3 + NaOH

FeSO4 + Mg(HCO3)2  Fe(OH)2 + MgCO3 + CO2

L6,7-10
FILTRATION

Itis the process of removing


colloidal matter and most of
the bacteria, micro-organisms
etc, by passing water through
a bed of fine sand and other
proper-sized granular
materials. Filtration is carried
out by using Sand-filter.
L6,7-11
Sand filter
Sand filter is used for
removing suspended
particles, micro-organisms,
bacteria etc., by passing
through a finely graded sand
bed. All the colloidal matter
and sediments gets
accumulated and water is
purified.
L6,7-12
SAND FILTER

L6,7-13
L6,7-14
L6,7-15
L6,7-16
Sand filter

L6,7-17
Sand filter

L6,7-18
SAND FILTER

L6,7-19
ULTRA SAND FILTER

L6,7-20
SAND FILTER

L6,7-21
OPERATION OF SAND
FILTER
 In sand filtration process, water is passed
through different sized sand beds like fine,
coarse and gravel beds.
 The suspended particles are unable to pass
through the gaps in the sand bed, because of
their size.
 Water is first passed through a fine sand-bed.
 The suspended particles are first collected
and gets clogged in fine sand and then
passed through sand-bed.
 Here colloidal matter gets collected and the
water is free from sediments.
L6,7-22
OPERATION OF SAND
FILTER
 After passing of water from coarse
sand bed it enters through a bed of
medium sized stones called gravel or
gravel-bed.
 This is the last bed where water is
filtered completely and the filtered
wate is collected at the filter outlet.
 During the filtration process the fine
pores of sand bed gets seized and
clogged.
 In order to continue the filtration
process, 2-3 cm of fine sand at the top
L6,7-23

is scrapped, replaced and leveled with


Sand filter operation

L6,7-24
Sand filter operation

L6,7-25
Disinfection:
 The process of destroying/killing the
disease producing Bacteria,
microorganisms, etc. from the water
and making it safe for use, is called
disinfection.
 Disinfectants: the chemicals or
substances which are added to eater
for killing the Bacteria.

L6,7-26
The disinfection of water can be
carried out by following
methods:
 A) BOILING
 B) BLEACHING POWER
 C) CHLORINE
 D) OZONISATION

L6,7-27
The disinfection of water can be
carried out by following methods:
 A). BOILING: Water for 10-15 minutes, all the disease-
producing bacteria are killed and water becomes safe for
use.

 B) BLEACHING POWER: It is used to purify the drinking


water from micro organisms. The purification process is
achieved by dissolving 1 kg of bleaching powder in 1000
kiloliters of water.
 This dissolved water solution is left undisturbed for many
hours. When bleaching powder is mixed with water, the
result of chemical reaction produces a powerful Germicide
called Hypochlorous acid.
 The presence of chlorine in the bleaching powder produces
disinfecting action, kills germs and purifies the drinking
water effectively.

 CaOCl2 + H2O  Ca(OH)2 + Cl2


 H2O + Cl2  HCl + HOCl
L6,7-28
 HOCl + Germs  Germs are killed  water purified.
C) CHLORINE:
 Chlorination is the process of purifying the
drinking water by producing a powerful Germicide
like Hypochlorous acid. When this Chlorine is
mixed with water it produces Hypochlorous acid
which kills the germs present in water.
 H2O + Cl2  HOCl + HCl
 Chlorine is basic (means pH value is more than 7)
disinfectant and is much effective over the
germs. Hence Chlorine is widely used all over the
world as a powerful disinfectant. Chlorinator is an
apparatus, which is used to purify the water by
chlorination process.

L6,7-29
BREAK-POINT
CHLORINATION:
 Break-point chlorination is a controlled process.
In this process suitable amount of Chlorine is added to water.
 In order to kill all the bacteria present in water, to oxidize the
entire organic matter and to react with free ammonia the
chlorine required should be appropriate.
 Break-point determines whether chlorine is further added or
not. By Chlorination, organic matter and disease producing
Bacteria are completely eliminated which are responsible for
bad taste and bad odour in water.
 When certain amount of Chlorine is added to the water, it
leads to the formation of Chloro-organic compounds and
chloramines.
 Addition of some more chlorine leads to destruction of
chloro-organic compounds and chloramines.
 The point at which free residual chlorine begins to appear is
terms as “Break-point”.

L6,7-30
BREAK-POINT
CHLORINATION:

L6,7-31
OZONISATION:
 Ozone is powerful disinfectant and is
readily dissolved in water.
 Ozone being unstable decomposes by
giving Nascent Oxygen which is
capable of destroying the Bacteria.
 This ascent Oxygen removes the
colour and taste of water and oxidizes
the organic matter present in water.
O3 
O2 + [O]
L6,7-32
Assignment
 1. Write short notes on the following
:(a) Break-point chlorination (b) Slow
sand filtration (c) Impurities in water
and their effects. [5+5+6]
 2. What is meant by disinfection?
What is its significance? Explain the
different methods used for
disinfection of surface water.

L6,7-33