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FINAL YEAR (5 YEAR) BSC.

IN ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTATION Submitted by: Noah Olela Abongo Student No: EN-5202S-00121/09 [Heavy Current Option]
Supervised by: Michael J. Saulo & Kenneth Mukhaya 25th February, 2013.

PROJECT TITLE:

THE ADOPTABILITY OF CAPACITOR COUPLED SUBSTATION ON A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AS OPPOSED TO A DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER

400 kV Transmission substation Transformer

130 kV 40-70 kV

Main substation 415 V Distribution substation

Secondary Distribution 11 kV

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Literature Review Chapter 3 Research Methodology Chapter 4 Research Findings Chapter 5 Recommendations Chapter 6 Conclusion Chapter 7 Work Plan & Budget References / Bibliography Appendices

Chapter 1 - Introduction
The provision of electric energy to many remote and/or rural people and communities is still today a big challenge for many developing countries, Kenya included. It is common knowledge that the provision of electricity, with whichever means, is one of the greatest enablers that allows the utilization of modern labour saving electric products and appliances.

Power system overview


The main purpose of power systems is to generate, transmit and distribute electric energy to customers without interruptions and in the most economical and safest manner possible.

Background Information
The provision of electric services to rural and remote communities in the developing world is a financial challenge.
This project is intended to study the adoptability of supplying electricity to rural communities directly from the high voltage transmission lines.

Objectives of the Research Project


These objectives are divided into two namely:
1. Main objectives. 2. Specific objectives.

Identify technologies which may lead to a greater efficiency in the bulk power system distribution using the existing unexploited power system distribution utilization with a view of reducing system losses. Compare the adoptability of capacitor coupled substation as opposed to the currently utilized conventional distribution transformer for the same locality.

Main objectives

Specific objectives
Power Stability considerations. Efficiency and Cost of Power Supply Systems under research.

Undervoltage and Overvoltage Effects.


Pilot projects Simulations. using SimPowerSystems

Limitations and Assumptions made on Power Distribution Systems.

Rationale / Justification of study


This project is intended to study the adoptability of supplying electricity to rural communities directly from high voltage transmission lines.
This technique is anticipated to result in important cost reductions when compared with conventional distribution transformers which are currently costing an average of Ksh.1,300,000/= for a 60MVA transformer.

12

Rationale / Justification of study cont...


Table 1.1 Estimates for a Distribution Transformer Installation No. Item Description Quantity Unit Cost (Kshs.) 1,300,000 8,000 157,500 175,000 400,000 Total Cost (Kshs.) 1,300,000 1,600,000 157,500 175,000 400,000 3,632,500

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3 Transformer 60MVA 3 Power Line and Neutral 11Kv Busbar / CB/ Isolator Earthing Civil works

1 4 X 50Km 1 1 1

13

Rationale / Justification of study cont...


Table 1.2 Estimates for Capacitor Divider Substation No. Item Description Quantity Unit Cost (Kshs.) 50,000 780,000 157,500 175,000 400,000 32,500 18,000 Total Cost (Kshs.) 100,000 780,000 157,500 175,000 400,000 32,500 18,000 1,663,000

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Capacitor C1 & C2 Feeder Transformer 250kVA 11Kv Busbar / CB / Isolator Earthing Civil works FSC Inductor

2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Chapter 2 Literature Review


Technical information for this research project was obtained from : Books on high voltage distribution systems and substations, Papers and bulletins electric power distribution. Mombasa Polytechnic University College electrical and electronic engineering notes. Library research reports.

Chapter 3 Research Methodology


SimPowerSystems is one of the main software for modeling and simulating electric power systems in the Simulink environment. It has powerful features for modeling generation, transmission, distribution and control systems, hence its choice for this research work.

Power System Stability


Power stability classification is important due to the following reasons:
1. Stability analysis leads to proper and effective understanding of different power system instabilities. 2. Key factors that lead to instability can easily be identified. 3. Methods can be devised for improving power system stability. 4. Considering the scope of this project, only voltage and frequency stability will be dealt with.

Voltage stability in power systems.


The voltage stability, sometimes called load stability is a major concern in planning and operating electric power system. More electric utilities are facing voltage stability imposed limitations. Voltage instability and collapse have in the past resulted in several major system failures or blackouts.

Frequency stability
Frequency stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady frequency following a severe system upset resulting in a significant imbalance between generation and load.

Frequency instability leads to tripping of generating units and / or loads.

Distribution System Issues.


Major issues related with flow of power in the distribution network can be categorized as:
Voltage drop.

Power loss.
Power quality.

Distribution Transformer Simulation Circuit


Discrete, Ts = 5e-005 s powergui
0.5 Gain Isuba Scope

Scope 4

0.5 Gain 1 Scope 3 Isubb Scope 1

0.5 Gain 2 Isubc

Three-Phase Series RLC Load


C B A

Scope 2

+ i + i -

Isa V-I M2
Vabc A Iabc a B b C c A B C a b c + i -

Ipa
A B C + i -

V-I M1
Vabc A Iabc a B b C c

A B

A B

Ipb

Isb

Three-Phase Source

C C Three-Phase PI Section Line

+ i -

Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings)

Ipc

+ i -

Isc

Graph 3.51 Current Display for Phase A

255.66 V -0.22 255.66 V -120.22 255.66 V 119.78 20343.40 V -0.17 20343.40 V -120.17 20343.40 V 119.83 6.88 A 107.75 6.88 A -12.25 6.88 A -132.25 14.66 A 139.81 14.66 A 19.81 14.66 A -100.19 14.66 A -40.19 14.66 A -160.19 14.66 A 79.81 6.88 A -72.25 6.88 A 167.75 6.88 A 47.75

---> V-I M1/Va ---> V-I M1/Vb ---> V-I M1/Vc ---> V-I M2/Va ---> V-I M2/Vb ---> V-I M2/Vc ---> V-I M1/Ia ---> V-I M1/Ib ---> V-I M1/Ic ---> V-I M2/Ia ---> V-I M2/Ib ---> V-I M2/Ic ---> Ip1 ---> Ip2 ---> Ip3 ---> Isa ---> Isb ---> Isc

Capacitor Coupled Substation Simulation Circuit


Discrete , Ts = 5e-005 s powergui

Breaker

Current Limiting Resistor

Pi Section Line

+ - v + i -

VM2
Scope 2

Scope 4

CM2

+ - v

Source Resistance C1
+ - v

VM4

Scope 6

CM3
Scope 1

VM5

+ i -

L2 AC Voltage Source

+ - v

Scope 8

VM3 CM1
+ i Scope 3

Scope 7

+ - v

T1

VM1

Scope 5

C2

Practical Load

Graph 3.54 132KV Simulated Voltage Source

Table 3.52 Capacitor Coupled Circuit Measurements


2017.93 V -79.78 253.73 V -79.79 116125.47 V -36.10 63282.88 V -35.99 132000.00 V 0.00 2.54 A -80.00 664.04 A 53.76 795.24 A 54.01 ---> VM4 ---> VM3 ---> VM2 ---> VM1 ---> VM5 ---> CM3 ---> CM2 ---> CM1

Chapter 4 Research Findings


Simulation of Distribution Transformers using SimPowerSystems Software.

SimPowerSystems Software in the Simulink / Matlab environment was used to simulate the Distribution Transformers. The parameter used for the simulation of these two distribution transformers were obtained from the theoretical work on high voltage and power systems analysis units.

Research Findings cont


A Three-Phase 132/33KV, 45MVA power distribution system which included a 150Km transmission line was used for simulation of distribution transformer as shown in the Figure 4.10 below.

Figure 4.10 Simulated Transformer Power System Model


Continuous powergui
0.5 Gain Isuba

Scope a 1

Scope d 1

Scope 0.5 Gain 1 Isubb Scope b 1 Scope e 1 Scope 1 0.5 Gain 2 Isubc Scope c 1

+ i -

+ i -

Ip1

V-I M2
Vabc A Iabc a B b C c A B C a b c

Isa

V-I M1
Vabc A Iabc a B b C c

A B

A B

A B C + i -

+ i -

Ip2

Isb

Three -Phase Source

C C Three -Phase PI Section Line

Three -Phase Transformer (Two Windings)


+ i -

+ i -

Isc

Ip3

Three -Phase Series RLC Load

Figure 4.11 Three Phase Transformer Simulation Model


Continuous powergui
+ v magnitude signal angle Fourier Iabc

signals
Flux

-KV -> pu

1 s Integrator

-KV --> pu

+ -

VA2

Va

Fourier

Mux

i -

0.15 MVA 220 -490 kV Three -Phase Transformer Breaker 1


A B a b c node 991

ia
A N B C + i -

ib
+ i -

1 MVA 220 kV Equivalent


C A B

Breaker 2

ic

Load 10 MW 38 Mvar

Breaker 3

node 992

Analysis of the Results


The above circuit shows a three-phase transformer with saturable core used for simulation. Both primary and secondary windings are connected in a star grounded configuration. Upon simulation the following surge voltage and inrush wave-forms were observed. The analysis of the Graph 4.10 and Graph 4.11 below are explained in details in the Data Analysis section.

Analysis of Results Graph 4.10 cont

Analysis of Results cont


The of Graph 4.10 shows the 4th harmonic variation of the phase a voltage. The shows the inrush current of all the three phases which reduces with time. The is the variation of the flux with changes in the inrush current. This shows that the flux build-up within the windings is directly proportional to the inrush current.

Analysis of Results Graph 4.11 cont Graph 4.11 Simulated Capacitive Inrush current

Analysis of Surge voltages / Inrush current of Capacitive-coupled circuits.


The simulation and measurements recorded indicate that the majority of surge voltages in low-voltage power systems have an oscillatory wave shape. This is because the voltage surge excites the natural resonant frequency of the wiring system. In addition to being typically oscillatory, the surges can also have different amplitudes and wave-shapes in the various places of the wiring system as can be observed in Graph 4.11 above.

Chapter 5 - Recommendations
Effects of power supply disturbances can be reduced to acceptable levels using the following methods: a) The power distribution system should to be resistant to power disturbances and discontinuities. b) The power distribution system must to be compatible with the utilization equipment. c) Both power systems and utilization equipment to meet a criterion that is realistic for both.

Challenges encountered in research


The major challenge of this research work has been the scarcity of relevant and practical information and principles touching on implementation of capacitor - coupled substations.
The second challenge has been the identification of the right software that was able to successfully realize the intended objectives of the project research.

Further Research Work


The researcher endeavoured to ensure that the project scope is carried out to its logical end. However, this field of study still offers a lot of unexploited research opportunities which needs to be carried out to the next level.

Further research work cont


I propose the following critical areas for further research work:

Investigations into various causes of the power system instability and their possible mitigations.
The major systematic reasons for the deviations of the capacitance parameters in power distribution system. Investigations into the possible permanent remedial actions to damp or remove the effects of ferroresonance effects.

Investigations into the impact system parameters for implementation of CCS .


Improvement of distribution transformer efficiency on a distribution system.

Chapter 6 Conclusion
Distribution transformers as that installed at Mombasa Polytechnic University College Electrical department may cost as much as Kshs.1,300,000/= as at todays market price.

This clearly explains why rural electrification schemes are usually uneconomical, especially where distribution transformers have been employed due to the high capital and operating costs. Furthermore, the loads are scattered and are characterized by low demand and poor utilization factors.

Chapter 7 Project Work Plan


Activity A Description Select a project and Formulate Problem Statement. Collection of Relevant Literature Literature Review and Analysis Preparation of the Project Design Collection of Data Analysis of the Collected Data Formulation of Results and Drawing of Conclusions Experimental Design, Software Simulation and Drafting of Final Report Outline Analysis of Data and Review of the Results against the Expectations Final Report Writing and Presentation. Predecessors Duration (Weeks) 2

B
C D E F G H

B C D E F G

6
2 3 3 2 2 4

I J

H I

3 18

Project Time Schedule


Activity June 2012 July 2012 Aug 2012 Sept 2012 Oct 2012 Nov 2012 Dec 2012 Jan 2013
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
A B C D E F G H

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

I
J

Project Budget
NO DESCRIPTION ESTIMATED COST IN KSHS.

1. 2. 3.

Feasibility studies on High Voltage Line Designing / Printing of the Data Collection Tools Cost of Software and Simulation of Data

10,000.00 15,000.00 17,000.00

4.
5. 6.

Accessing of Internet and Cyber Cafs Charges


Production of Project Draft Copies Production of the Final Project Dissertation and CDs

8,000.00
3,000.00 25,000.00

7.

Miscellaneous / Concealed Expenses

10,500.00

Total Estimated Cost of the Entire Project

88,500.00

References / Bibliography
[1] A Research Guide - University of Central England in Birmingham Published by the Research Training Initiative [First Published in 1996] [2] A.N.Zomers (NLD) and G.Dagbjartsson (CHE) The challenge of rural electrification CIGRs strategy and organizational approach. [2006]. [3] C.L. Wadhwa Electrical Power Systems [6th Edition 2010] [4] David A. N. Jacobson, Member, IEEE - Examples of Ferroresonance in a High Voltage Power System. [1990] [5] E. Liu and J. Bebic [2008] National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report NREL/SR-581-42298 Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics [6] Edvard Csanyi Substations Main Functions and Classifications. [2012] [7] Edward R. Ronan, Member, IEEE, Scott D. Sudhoff, Member, IEEE, Steven F. Glover, and Dudley L. Galloway, Member, IEEE A Power Electronic-Based Distribution Transformer. [2002] [8] Government of the Republic of Kenya Vision 2030 Delivery Secretariat Kenya Vision 2030 Chapter 2 Foundations for Socio-Economic Transformation. [2006] [9] Jennifer M. Case and Gregory Light in Emerging Methodologies in Engineering Education Research [2011] [10] L. Pillay Research Manager Research Report No: RES/PR/04/23205 Analysis of Tests Results for the 275 to 22KV Meru Capacitor Coupled Sub-Station [2004] [11] M. Sanaye-Pasand and R. Aghazadeh Capacitive Voltage Substations Ferroresonance Prevention Using Power Electronic Devices. [2003]

[12] Ningbo SanXing Electric Company Limited Available at: www.sanxingenergymeter.com/product.asp [13] P. R. Barnes et al Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances. [November 1991] [14] Pandey Piyush - Substation Practice [2010] [15] Pant, Gourav A Seminar on Ferroresonance in High Voltage Power Systems [16] Peter Johansen: Substation Monitoring and Control. Available at: www.jomitek.dk. [17] Prabha Kundur, John Paserba, Definition and Classification of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems. Vol. 19, No. 2, [2004] [18] Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.0 [19] Swee Peng Ang [2010] Ferroresonance Studies of Transmission Systems. [20] The Point Bulletin of the Institute of Economic Affairs Issue No.56 [April 2003] Available at: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/543S-2.pdf [21] Trevor Gaunt (South Africa) et al Paper on the Innovative Solutions and Best Practices for Rural Electrification of Remote Areas. [2007]. [22] Viktor M. Perelmuter, PhD Electrotechnical Systems: Simulation with Simulink and SimPowerSystems [16th October, 2012]

References / Bibliography cont

Appendices