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LANGUAGE DESRIPTION

PARTS OF SPEECH

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PARTS OF SPEECH
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NOUNS DETERMINERS ADVERBS VERBS PARTS OF SPEECH INTERJECTIONS CONJUNCTIONS PREPOSITIONS ADJECTIVES

PRONOUNS

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NOUNS
PEOPLE

ANIMALS NOUNS

PLACE

THINGS

IDEAS

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NOUNS
NOUNS COMMON PLURAL
Countable vs Uncountable

PROPER SINGULAR CONCRETE COLLECTIVE


POSSESSIVE

ABSTRACT GERUND COMPOUND

ONE WORD

SPACED

HYPHEN

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ADJECTIVES
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. E.G.
The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dark.
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ADJECTIVES
Descriptive Exclamatory Numerical Indefinite Distributive Emphasizing
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

Definite

Quantitative

Demonstrative

Interrogative

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ADJECTIVES
adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category.

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ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Determiners articles and other limiters. See Determiners Observation postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting) Size and Shape adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round) Age adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient) Color adjectives denoting color (e.g., red, black, pale) Origin denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.g., French, American, Canadian) Material denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden) Qualifier --final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car, book cover)
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POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVES
When indefinite pronouns such as something, someone, anybody are modified by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun: - Anyone capable of doing something horrible to someone nice should be punished. - Something wicked this way comes.
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POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVES
There are certain adjectives that, in combination with certain words, are always "postpositive" (coming after the thing they modify): The president elect, heir apparent to the Glitzy fortune, lives in New York proper.
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DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES
ADJECTIVE RICH LOVELY BEAUTIFUL COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE RICHER THAN THE RICHEST

LOVELIER THANTHE LOVELIEST MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN


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THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

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IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS


GOOD BAD LITTLE MUCH MANY SOME FAR BETTER WORSE LESS MORE FURTHER
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BEST WORST LEAST MOST FURTHEST


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DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES
The as as construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality: He is as foolish as he is large. She is as bright as her mother.

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POST-MODIFIERS WITH DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES


Both adverbs & adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by pre-modifiers, single words and phrases, that intensify the degree. - We were a lot more careful this time. - He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town. - We like his work so much better. - You'll get your watch back all the faster.
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POST-MODIFIERS WITH DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES


The same process can be used to downplay the degree: - The weather this week has been somewhat better. - He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does.
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POST-MODIFIERS WITH DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES


And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used for this purpose: He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected. That's a heck of a lot better.
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FEWER VS LESS
When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. Generally, when we're talking about countable things, we use the word fewer; when we're talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count, we use the word less
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ADJECTIVES
If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required: She is wearing her very finest outfit for the interview. They're doing the very best they can.
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ADJECTIVES
Occasionally, the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood: - Of all the wines produced in Connecticut, I like this one the most. - The quicker you finish this project, the better. - Of the two brothers, he is by far the faster.
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FEWER VS LESS
Use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It's less than twenty miles to Dallas. He's less than six feet tall.
Your essay should be a thousand words or less.

We spent less than forty dollars on our trip. The town spent less than four percent of its budget on snow removal.
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TALLER THAN I/ME?


When making a comparison with "than" we end with a subject form, "He is taller than I/she." (Except we leave out the verb in the second clause, "am" or "is.")

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VERBS
The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.

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VERBS
VERBS TRANSITIVE COMPOUND AUXILIARY INTRANSITIVE

PRIMARY

MODAL

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PRONOUNS
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
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PERSONAL PRONOUNS

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS
PERSONAL PRONOUNS

SUBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

POSSESSIVE

1ST PERSON

1ST PERSON

3RD PERSON

1ST PERSON

2ND PERSON

2ND PERSON

2ND PERSON

3RD PERSON

3RD PERSON

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS
1ST PERSON
SINGULAR PLURAL

2ND PERSON
SINGULAR PLURAL

3RD PERSON
SINGULAR PLURAL

WE

YOU

YOU

SUBJECTIVE
ME US YOU YOU

HE SHE IT HIM HER IT

THEY

THEM

OBJECTIVE
MY MINE OUR OURS YOUR YOURS YOUR YOURS

POSSESSIVE

HIS HER THEIR HERS ITS THEIRS

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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, but used differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun. language description FC 3 29

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

SINGULAR

PLURAL

THIS

THESE

THAT

THOSE

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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever").

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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.

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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.

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RELATIVE PRONOUN
A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

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RELATIVE PRONOUN
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.

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INDEFINITE PRONOUN
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

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INDEFINITE PRONOUN
The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
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REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
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INTENSIVE PRONOUN
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

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ADVERB
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective , another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".

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ADVERB
While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.
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CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
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ADDVERBS
TYPES OF ADVERBS PLACE FREQUENCY PURPOSE MANNER TIME

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POSITIONS OF ADVERBS
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.
Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation. The minister solemnly addressed her congregation. The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

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POSITIONS OF ADVERBS
The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:
Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock. Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason. Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.
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POSITIONS OF ADVERBS
Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb:
He finally showed up for batting practice. She has recently retired.

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ORDER OF ADVERBS
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.

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ORDER OF ADVERBS
USUAL ORDER
PLACE TIME MANNER

FREQUENCY

PURPOSE

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ORDER OF ADVERBS
As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases, regardless of content. In the following sentence, an adverb of time precedes an adverb of frequency because it is shorter (and simpler):
Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.
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ADVERBS
A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner, place, frequency, etc.), the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:
My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern Nebraska. She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.
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ORDER OF ADVERBS
Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special emphasis on that modifier. This is particularly useful with adverbs of manner:
Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above the brim. Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the inspectors.
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ADJUNCT
Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of a sentence. When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an adjunct.
(Notice the underlined adjuncts or adjunctive adverbs in the first two sentences of this paragraph.)
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DISJUNCT
When the adverb does not fit into the flow of the clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is often set off by a comma or set of commas. A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation of the rest of the sentence.

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DISJUNCT
Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too. Notice how "too" is a disjunct in the sentence immediately before this one; that same word can also serve as an adjunct adverbial modifier: It's too hot to play outside.

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DISJUNCT
Here are two more disjunctive adverbs:
Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot. Fortunately, no one was hurt.

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CONJUNCTIVE
Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text, signaling a transition between ideas.
If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying. We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
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CONJUNCTIVE
At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive device known as the conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial conjunction):
Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here. I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.
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RELATIVE ADVERB
Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs: where, when, and why. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun, the relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
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VIEWPOINT ADVERB
A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that precedes that noun:
A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically. Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.
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FOCUS ADVERB
A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the sense of the sentence ("He got an A just for attending the class.") or to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being published."

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NEGATIVE ADVERBS
Negative adverbs create a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:
He seldom visits. She hardly eats anything since the accident. After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.
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PREPOSITION
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.

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PREPOSITION
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class.
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Prepositions of Time: at, on, in


We use at to designate specific times. - The train is due at 12:15 p.m. We use on to designate days and dates. - My brother is coming on Monday. We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. She likes to jog in the morning. It's too cold in winter to run outside
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PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: AT, ON, & IN


We use at for specific addresses. - Azilah lives at 55 Donggongon Road in Penampang. We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc. Her house is on Donggongon Road. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents). - She lives in Penampang. - Penampang is in West Coast South. - West Coast South is in Sabah.
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Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on & no preposition


IN AT (the) bed* class* the bedroom home the car the library* (the) class* the office the library* school* school* work
*sometimes used with different prepositions.

ON the bed* the ceiling the floor the horse the plane the train

NO PREPOSITI ON downstairs downtown inside outside upstairs uptown

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Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition

We use to in order to express movement toward a place. - They were driving to work together. - She's going to the dentist's office this morning.

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Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition


Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. - We're moving toward the light. - This is a big step towards the project's completion.
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Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition


With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition. - Grandma went upstairs - Grandpa went home. - They both went outside.
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Prepositions of Time: for and since


We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). - He held his breath for seven minutes. - She's lived there for seven years. - The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
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Prepositions of Time: for and since

We use since with a specific date or time. - He's worked here since 1970. - She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

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Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.


Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
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NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS


approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of

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ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS


afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about

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VERBS and PREPOSITIONS


apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out give up grow up look for look forward to look up make up pay for prepare for study for talk about think about trust in work for worry about

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Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions


agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities) correspond to a thing, with a person differ from an unlike thing, with a person live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people
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Unnecessary Prepositions
She met up with the new coach in the hallway. The book fell off of the desk. He threw the book out of the window. She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. [or use "in"] Where did they go to? Put the lamp in back of the couch. [use "behind" instead] Where is your college at?
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Prepositions in Parallel Form


When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct, the preposition does not have to be used twice. - You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter. - The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance.
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However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not to omit one of them. - The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. - It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played. - He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman
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CONJUNCTION
You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example:
I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready.

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CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTION
You use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.

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EXAMPLES
Lilacs and violets are usually purple. This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West. Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.

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SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."
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EXAMPLES
After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.

If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.


Gerald had to begun his thesis over again when his computer crashed.

Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs
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CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or.
(Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)
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EXAMPLES
Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant. Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school.

The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.
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ARTICLES, DETERMINERS & QUANTIFIERS


Articles, determiners, and quantifiers are those little words that precede and modify nouns: - the teacher, a college, a bit of honey, that person, those people, whatever purpose, either way, your choice

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DETERMINERS
Determiners are said to "mark" nouns. That is to say, you know a determiner will be followed by a noun. These categories of determiners are as follows: the articles (an, a, the) possessive nouns (Joe's, the priest's, my mother's); possessive pronouns, (his, your, their, whose, etc.); numbers (one, two, etc.); indefinite pronouns (few, more, each, every, either, all, both, some, any, etc.); and demonstrative pronouns
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ARTICLES
The three articles a, an, the are a kind of adjective. The is called the definite article because it usually precedes a specific or previously mentioned noun; a and an are called indefinite articles because they are used to refer to something in a less specific manner (an unspecified count noun).
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ARTICLES
Proper nouns: We use the definite article with certain kinds of proper nouns: Geographical places: the Sound, the Sea of Japan, the Mississippi, the West, the Smokies, the Sahara Pluralized names (geographic, family, teams): the Netherlands, the Bahamas, the Hamptons, Public institutions/facilities/groups: the Wadsworth Atheneum, the Sheraton, the House, Newspapers: the Hartford Courant, the Times Nouns followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with "of": the leader of the gang,
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ARTICLES
Abstract nouns: Abstract nounsthe names of things that are not tangibleare sometimes used with articles, sometimes not: The storm upset my peace of mind. He was missing just one thing: peace of mind. Injustice was widespread within the judicial system itself. He implored the judge to correct the injustice. Her body was racked with grief. It was a grief he had never felt before.
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ARTICLES
Zero articles: Several kinds of nouns never use articles. We do not use articles with the names of languages ("He was learning Chinese), the names of sports ("She plays badminton and basketball."), and academic subjects ("She's taking economics and math. Her major is Religious Studies.")
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ARTICLES
When they are generic, non-count nouns and sometimes plural count-nouns are used without articles. "We like wine with our dinner. We adore Baroque music. We use roses for many purposes

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ARTICLES
But if an "of phrase" comes after the noun, we use an article: "We adore the music of the Baroque."

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ARTICLES
When a generic noun is used without an article and then referred to in a subsequent reference, it will have become specific and will require a definite article:
"The Data Center installed computers in the Learning Center this summer. The computers, unfortunately, don't work.

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ARTICLES
Common count nouns are used without articles in certain special situations: idiomatic expressions using be and go - We'll go by train. (as opposed to "We'll take the train.) - He must be in school.
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ARTICLES
with seasons - In spring, we like to clean the house. with institutions - He's in church/college/jail/class. with meals - Breakfast was delicious. - He's preparing dinner by himself.
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with diseases He's dying of pneumonia. Appendicitis nearly killed him. She has cancer

(You will sometimes hear "the measles," "the mumps," but these, too, can go without articles.)
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ARTICLES
with time of day - We traveled mostly by night. - We'll be there around midnight.

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QUANTIFIERS
Like articles, quantifiers are words that precede and modify nouns. They tell us how many or how much. Selecting the correct quantifier depends on your understanding the distinction between Count and Non-Count Nouns.

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QUANTIFIERS
The following quantifiers will work The following quantifiers will work The following quantifiers will work with count nouns: with non-count nouns: with both types of nouns:

many trees a few trees few trees several trees a


couple of trees none of the trees

not much dancing a little dancing little dancing a bit of dancing a good deal of dancing a great deal of dancing no dancing

all of the trees/dancing some trees/dancing most of the trees/dancing enough trees/dancing a lot of trees/dancing lots of trees/dancing plenty of trees/dancing a lack of trees/ dancing

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PREDETERMINERS
The predeterminers occur prior to other determiners . This class of words includes multipliers (double, twice, four/five times . . . .); fractional expressions (one-third, three-quarters, etc.); the words both, half, and all; and intensifiers such as quite, rather, and such.
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MULTIPLIERS
The multipliers precede plural count and mass nouns and occur with singular count nouns denoting number or amount: - This van holds three times the passengers as that sports car. - My wife is making double my / twice my salary. - This time we added five times the amount of water.
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FRACTIONAL EXPRESSIONS
In fractional expressions, we have a similar construction, but here it can be replaced with "of" construction. Charlie finished in one-fourth [of] the time his brother took. Two-fifths of the respondents reported that half the medication was sufficient
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INTENSIFIERS
The intensifiers occur in this construction primarily in casual speech and writing. The intensifier "what" is often found in stylistic fragments: "We visited my brother in his dorm room. What a mess!" - This room is rather a mess, isn't it? - The ticket-holders made quite a fuss when they couldn't get in. - What an idiot he turned out to be. - Our vacation was such a grand experience
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INTENSIFIERS
Half, both, and all can occur with singular and plural count nouns; half and all can occur with mass nouns. There are also "of constructions" with these words ("all [of] the grain," "half [of] his salary"); the "of construction" is required with personal pronouns ("both of them," "all of it").
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INTENSIFIERS

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INTERJECTIONS
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

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INTERJECTIONS
You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations

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INTERJECTIONS
Ouch, that hurt! Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today. Hey! Put that down! I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?" I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!
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