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MOTION SENSING TECHNOLOGY

P.CHAITANYA 09131A1275 I.T

OVERVIEW
What is a sensor? Motion sensor Types of motion sensors Motion Detection Types of Motion Sensing Dual sense technology Motion Sensor in mobile References

SENSOR

A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal. A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument. Benifits of sensor are: Accuracy Reliable Efficiency

MOTION SENSORS

The term Motion sensors can be used to refer to any kind of sensing system which is used to detect motions; motion of any object or motion of human beings.

Motion sensor is also called as motion detector.


Motion sensors are commonly used in security systems as triggers for automatic lights or remote alarms and similar applications.
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TYPES OF

MOTION SENSORS

The way in which a motion sensor works typically depends on the type of sensor being used, which often depends on the device that uses the sensor.

There are two basic types of motion sensors: Active Sensors Passive Sensors
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ACTIVE SENSORS

Active sensors emit a signal, typically an ultrasonic burst of (light, microwaves or sound) waves which is reflected by the surroundings. The reflected signal is received by the sensor and takes necessary action. When something moves within the area of an active motion sensor, the change in signal that is reflected to the sensor activates the system.
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The active motion sensor is one of the most common and reliable sensors used in a security system. For example, when an automatic faucet senses hands underneath it, a device is signaled to run water in the sink

PASSIVE SENSOR

Passive sensors are a type of motion sensor that do not emit a signal, but instead detect infrared radiation around the sensor.

As this sensor detects temperature differences, it is well suited to detecting the motion of people by their body temperature.

When a person or animal moves through the area, heat from the movement is detected by the sensor, which then activates the system to which it is connected

Use as a human detection sensor to automatically turn lights on when a person is present in a room and to turn them off when nobody is there.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Motion sensing is used in number of applications

Automated lighting system Security systems Smart Floodlights Burglar Alarm

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MOTION DETECTION
Motion can be detected by: Infrared (Passive and active sensors) Optics (video and camera systems) Radio Frequency Energy (radar, microwave motion detection) Sound (microphones and acoustic sensors) Vibration (seismic sensors) Magnetism (magnetic sensors and magnetometers)
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TYPES OF MOTION SENSING

Local Motion Sensing

Ultrasonic Motion Sensing


Microwave Motion Sensing

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LOCAL MOTION SENSING

Infrared light is a spectrum of non-visible for humans at least light that is emitted by objects when they produce heat.
Infrared motion sensor systems are one of the cheapest and most reliable systems available

An infrared motion detector uses infrared sensing to detect motion in a given area.
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CONTD...

The use of infrared technology usually allows such a detector to only pick up on heat and therefore more easily ignore non-living motion.
Infrared sensors are characterized by high sensitivity, low cost and are widely used.

An infrared motion detector can also be set to only pick up on certain levels of heat, making it possible to ignore small animals. This type of detector is often used as part of a larger security system.
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ULTRASONIC MOTION SENSING

Ultrasonic motion detectors use sound waves to detect motion. If movement is detected, the sound wave pattern is disrupted and alarm is signaled.
It senses motion by analyzing sound waves in its environment

These frequencies are generally inaudible to humans and most animals and do not pass through most objects
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CONTD...

Active motion sensors generate sound waves in the ultrasonic frequency range, typically around 30 to 50 kilohertz (kHz).

When no objects are moving in the area, the pattern of sound and the time it takes to bounce back remain the same. If something moves, the detector senses that the level or phase of the returning sound waves has shifted slightly.

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MICROWAVE MOTION SENSING

Microwave motion sensor systems send out microwaves that bounce off an object and back to the sensor.

The sensor then reads the frequency of the returning waves. If an object is moving, the sensor receives different microwaves than the ones it sent out, signifying movement and setting off the alarm.

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These types of motion sensor systems cover a larger area than infrared sensors, they are capable of penetrating walls. They are more reliable over longer distances. Their radiation is unhealthy for living organisms

Despite this, they are the least popular motion sensor system on the market because of their their cost.

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DUAL SENSE TECHNOLOGY

Dual technology systems use a combination of infrared and microwave motion sensor systems to provide the most complete coverage available. Using both forms of technology allows dual motion sensor systems to reduce the occurrence of false alarms by combining the microwave technologys coverage range and the infrared technologys use of heat sensing. The dual technology system is rapidly gaining popularity among homeowners and businesses alike.

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CELL PHONES WITH MOTION SENSORS

The motion sensor used in mobile phones is accelerometer which is a complex motion sensor. An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration It translate motion into action on the screen.

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