CHAPTER 2
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS & WAVES
BEE 2263 / BEX 20903
2.1. Electric Flux Charge, Q
2.2. Coulombs Law
Force, F Between Charges
Electric Field Intensity, E for Point Charge & Charge
Distribution
2.3. Flux, & Electric Flux Density, D
2.4. Gausss Law
Divergence Theorem
Applications of Gausss Law for Continuous Charge
Distributions
2.5. Potential Difference, V
2.6. Electrostatic Energy, W
2.7. Maxwells Equations Related to Electrostatic Field
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Field
Introduction
Electrostatic is the study of charges at static (dq/dt = 0).
Two fundamental laws governing electrostatic fields are
Coulombs law and Gausss law.
Electrostatic is used in many areas of application;
1) Solidstate electronics devices such as
resistors, capacitors & active devices (bipolar and field
effect transistors).
2) Computer peripheral devices such as
touch pads, capacitance keyboards, cathoderay tubes,
liquid crystal displays & electrostatic printers.
3) Industrial machines such as
paint spraying, electrochemical machine & separation
of fine particle.
Charges are generally measured in coulombs (C), named after a
French scientist, Charles Augustin de Coulomb
1 coulomb is approximately equivalent to
electrons
Fundamental quantity of charge is a single electron,
Q = ne
where n = 1, 2, 3, , and
The polarity of charges may be,
positive (proton) or
negative (electron).
Electric Charge, Q
(C) 10 6 . 1
19
= e
18
10 24 . 6
Electric charge is always conserved
Charge is never created nor destroyed
Objects become charged because negative charge is
transferred from one object to another
A plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth attracts tiny pieces of paper
We recognize a body as charged when it attracts nearby light
objects such as a small pieces of paper or cork without
touching them.
Electric Charge, Q (Cont.)
Rubbing two materials together can rub electrons off of one
and onto the other.
A plastic ruler becomes negativelycharged object after
being rubbed with fur.
A glass rod becomes positivelycharged object after being
rubbed with silk.
_ _
_ _ _
+ + +
+ + + + + +
+
Electric Charge, Q (Cont.)
Electric Charge, Q (Cont.)
Likecharged objects repel each other and, oppositecharged
objects attract one another.
After being rubbed with fur: After being rubbed with silk:
Methods of Charging:
Charging implies either adding electrons to an object, removing
electrons from an object, or separating out positive and
negative charges within an object.
1) Charging by touching
By touching a charged material to an uncharged metal
could lead to a flow of charge between them.
2) Charging by induction
The process to induce
charges is by charge
separation.
Electric Charge, Q (Cont.)
Coulombs Law
Coulombs law deals with the force of a point charge exerts on
another point charge (two charged bodies that very small in
size compared to their separation).
It can be used to develop expressions relating the electric field
intensity E and electric flux density D.
In 1785, Charles Augustin de Coulomb formulated law about
the interaction of force between two charged particles.
Coulombs experiments demonstrated that:
1. Two like charges repel one another, whereas two charges of
opposite polarity attract.
2. The force acts along the line joining the charges.
3. Its strength is directly proportional to the product of the
magnitudes of the two charges and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between them.
Coulombs law can be expressed mathematically as;
where
(N) F
12 12
R
4
2
12 0
2 1
R
Q Q
tc
=
(F/m)
36
10
10 8.854
the :
charges o between tw distance the :
Q to from pointing r unit vecto :
~ =
space f ree of ty permittivi
R
Q
Q Q
12
1 12
R
Q
1
Q
2
F
12
R
12
12
R
4
2
21 0
1 2
R
Q Q
tc
=
(F/m)
36
10
10 8.854
the :
charges o between tw distance the :
Q to from pointing r unit vecto :
~ =
space f ree of ty permittivi
R
Q
Q Q
21
2 21
R
Coulombs Law (Cont.)
Q
1
Q
2
F
12
R
21
F
21
12
R
12 21
R R
=
The direction of
unit vector is the
same as that of F
(N) F
12 21
R
4
2
21 0
2 1
R
Q Q
tc
=
(N) F
21 12
R
4
2
12 0
1 2
R
Q Q
tc
=
The forces on Q
2
and Q
1
, if both the Q
2
and Q
1
are unlike
charges:
The force on Q
1
due to Q
2
The force on Q
2
due to Q
1
Coulombs Law (Cont.)
+Q
1
Q
2
F
12
F
21
12
R
21
R
R
12
** The minus sign of Q
2
is ignored since the direction of vector F
has been assigned based on the fact that like charges repel;
unlike charges attract.
The direction
of unit vector
is the same
as that of F
Example 1
A point charge Q
A
is located at A (6, 4, 7) and
another point charge Q
B
= 50uC is placed at B
(5,8,2) in free space. Consider distances are
given in meters. Determine the vector force
exerted on Q
A
due to Q
B
;
(i) if Q
A
= 20uC, and
(ii) if Q
A
= 20uC.
mN 16 . 25 18 . 11 75 . 30 (ii)
mN 16 . 25 18 . 11 75 . 30 (i)
:
z y x
z y x
Ans
+
+
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+
+
F
BA
STEP 1:
Sketch a diagram.
Example 1: Solution (i)
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+
+
F
BA
OA
OB
BA =R
BA
(N)
4
2
0
BA BA
R F
BA
A B
R
Q Q
tc
=
STEP 2: Identify the question needs (parameter to be determined)
and choose the right formula.
i) F
BA
= ???
STEP 3: List all the given parameters
Q
A
= 20 uC, Q
B
= 50 uC, = 3.142 &
0
= 8.854 x 10
12
(C
2
/Nm
2
)
STEP 4: List all unknown parameters
i) Distance, R
BA
= ???
ii) Unit vector, = ???
BA
R
218 9 4 11  
is A and B between distance The
9 4 11
2 7 8 4 5 6
2 8 5 7 4 6
is A to B from vector distance The
2 8 5
7 4 6
are B and A points the of ectors position v The
2 2 2
+
= =
= + + = =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
= = + = =
+ = + + = =
+ + = + + = =
BA
BA
BA
BA
B A BA
B B B B
A A A A
R
z y x
z y x
z y x z y x
OB OA OA BO BA
z y x z z y y x x OB
z y x z z y y x x OA
R
R
R
R R R
R
R
R
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+
+
F
BA
OA =R
A
OB =R
B
BA =R
BA
Example 1: Solution (i) (Cont.)
STEP 6: Solve the problem
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( ) mN 13 25 17 11 72 30
9 4 11 10 7923 2
218
9 4 11
218 10 854 8 4
20 50
(N)
4
3
2
12
2
0
z . y . x .
z y x .
z y x
.
R
Q Q
BA
A B
+ =
+ =

.

\
 +
=
=
BA
BA BA
F
R F
tc
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+
+
F
BA
OA =R
A
OB =R
B
BA =R
BA
Example 1: Solution (i) (Cont.)
Example 1
A point charge Q
A
is located at A (6, 4, 7) and
another point charge Q
B
= 50uC is placed at B
(5,8,2) in free space. Consider distances are
given in meters. Determine the vector force
exerted on Q
A
due to Q
B
;
(i) if Q
A
= 20uC, and
(ii) if Q
A
= 20uC.
mN 16 . 25 18 . 11 75 . 30 (ii)
mN 16 . 25 18 . 11 75 . 30 (i)
:
z y x
z y x
Ans
+
+
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+
F
BA
STEP 1:
Sketch a diagram.
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+

F
BA
OA
OB
AB =R
AB
(N)
4
2
0
AB BA
R F
AB
A B
R
Q Q
tc
=
STEP 3: List all the given parameters
Q
A
= 20 uC, Q
B
= 50 uC, = 3.142 &
0
= 8.854 x 10
12
(C
2
/Nm
2
)
STEP 4: List all unknown parameters
i) Distance, R
AB
= ???
ii) Unit vector, = ???
AB
R
218 9 4 11  
is B and A between distance The
9 4 11
7 2 4 8 6 5
7 4 6 2 8 5
is B to A from vector distance The
2 8 5
7 4 6
are B and A points the of ectors position v The
2 2 2
+
= =
= + + = =
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + =
= + = + = =
+ = + + = =
+ + = + + = =
AB
AB
AB
AB
A B AB
B B B B
A A A A
R
z y x
z y x
z y x z y x
OB OA OB AO AB
z y x z z y y x x OB
z y x z z y y x x OA
R
R
R
R R R
R
R
R
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+

F
BA
OA =R
A
OB =R
B
AB =R
AB
Example 1: Solution (ii) (Cont.)
STEP 6: Solve the problem
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( ) mN 13 25 17 11 72 30
9 4 11 10 7923 2
218
9 4 11
218 10 854 8 4
20 50
(N)
4
3
2
12
2
0
z . y . x .
z y x .
z y x
.
R
Q Q
AB
A B
+ =
+ =

.

\
 +
=
=
BA
AB BA
F
R F
tc
x
z
y
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
6
4
2
7
6
5
3
2
1
1
2
2
4
6
A(6,4,7)
B(5,8,2)
+

F
BA
OA =R
A
OB =R
B
AB =R
AB
** The minus sign of Q
A
is
ignored since we have assigned
the direction of vector FBA in
an early stage.
Example 1: Solution (ii) (Cont.)
Coulombs Law (Cont.)
Force due to Multiple Point Charges:
Coulombs law can also be used to determine the force on a
particular charge, Q due to several point charges Q
1
, Q
2
, ... Q
N.
The force is obtained by the vector sum of the forces exerted
on Q by each of the charges Q
1
, Q
2
,...Q
N.
(The principle of superposition)
Q
1
+

F
1A
+
Q
2
F
2A
F
total
Q
=
QA
(N)
R R 4
) R R (
R R 4
) R R (
R
R 4
4
3
A 2
A 2 2
3
1 A
1 A 1
A2
2
A2
2
2
1
=
+ =
+ =
tc tc
tc tc
A A
A A
Q Q Q Q
Q Q Q Q
1A
1A
2A 1A total
R
R
F F F
Coulombs Law (Cont.)
Alternatively:
Q
1
+

F
1A
+
Q
2
F
2A
F
total
Q=Q
A
( )
( )
=
=
+ =
+ =
N
k
k
k k
A A
A A
Q Q
QQ QQ
Q Q Q Q
Q Q Q Q
1
3
3
2
3
1
3
2
3
1
2
2
2
1
) (
4
4
) (
4
) (
4
) (
4
) (
4
R R
R R
R R
R R
R R
R R
F
R R
R R
R R
R R
R
R
R
R
F F F
2
2
1
1
2 A
2 A
1 A
1 A
2A
2A
1A
1A
2A 1A total
tc
tc tc
tc tc
tc tc
** The sign of Q, Q
1
, Q
2
, ... Q
N.
is taken into account in the above
equation, since we have not assigned the direction of any vectors F
Electric Field Lines
An isolated charge Q induces an electric field, E at every point
in space.
An electric field is a region in which a test charge experiences a
force when placed at any point in the region.
An electric field can be represented by a number of lines
indicate both the magnitude and direction of the field.
The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :
Electric field lines are always originate from a positively
charged object to a negativelycharged object and to
infinity, or from infinity to a negativelycharged object.
Electric field lines never cross each other,
Electric field lines are closer in a stronger electric field.
The pattern of the electric field lines:
Electric field around
a positive charge
Electric field around two
unlike charges
Electric field around
a negative charge
Electric field around two like charges
Electric Field Lines (Cont.)
Density of Line in Patterns:
The density of electric field lines around these three objects reveals that
the quantity of charge on C is greater than that on B which is greater
than that on A.
Electric Field Lines (Cont.)
Field lines are closer Field lines are further
together in this region apart in this region
Electric field line for objects with unequal amounts of charge:
Electric Field Lines (Cont.)
A B A B
A is less than B A is less than B
A B A B
A is less than B A is greater than B
The electric field intensity or electric field strength, E is the
force per unit charge when placed in an electric field.
Thus,
Electric Field Intensity, E
q
F
E =
(V/m)
4
4
3
0
2
0
R
R
Q
R
Q
tc tc
R
E = =
. point to charge the from away pointing r unit vecto radial :
=
=
=
+ =
N
k
k
k k
Q
Q Q
1
3
3
2
3
1
) (
4
1
4
) (
4
) (
R R
R R
E
R R
R R
R R
R R
E E E
2
2
1
1
2 1
tc
tc tc
Electric Field Intensity, E (Cont.)
Example 2
Point charges 1 mC and 2 mC are
located at (3, 2, 1) and (1, 1, 4)
respectively. Calculate the electric force
on a 10 nC charge located at (0, 3, 1) and
the electric field intensity at that point.
x
z
y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
3
2
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
q
1
(3,2,1)
+

F
13
+
q
2
(1,1,4)
F
23
F
total
and E = ??
q
3
(0,3,1)
STEP 1: Sketch a diagram
STEP 2: Identify all the question needs (parameters to be
determined) and choose the right formulas.
1) F
total
= ??? 2) E = ???
STEP 3: List all the given
parameters
q
1
= 1 mC, q
2
= 2 mC and
q
3
= 10 nC,
0
= 8.854 x 10
12
(C
2
/Nm
2
)
= 3.142
F
13 13
R
4
2
13 0
3 1
R
q q
tc
=
32
R
4
2
32 0
3 2
F
23
R
q q
tc
=
F F F
23 13 total
+ =
3
/ q
total
F E=
x
z
y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
3
2
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
q
1
(3,2,1)
+

F
13
+
q
2
(1,1,4)
F
23
F
total
and
E = ??
q
3
(0,3,1)
Oq
1
q
1
q
3
=R
13
Oq
3
Oq
2
q
3
q
2
=R
32
Example 2: Solution
STEP 4: List all unknown parameters
i) Distance, R
13
= ??? & R
32
= ???
ii) Unit vector, = ??? & , = ???
13
R
32
R
x
z
y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
3
2
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
q
1
(3,2,1)
+

F
13
+
q
2
(1,1,4)
F
23
F
total
and E = ??
q
3
(0,3,1)
Oq
1
q
1
q
3
=R
13
Oq
3
STEP 5: Find all the unknown parameters
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
14
z 2 y x 3
 
14 2 1 3  
is and between distance The
z 2 y x 3
z y 2 x 3 z y 3 x 0
is to from vector distance The
z y 3 x 0
z y 2 x 3
are and charges the of ectors position v The
13
13
13
2 2 2
13
3 1
1 3 13
3 1
3 3
1 1
3 1
+ +
= =
= + + = =
+ + =
+ + + =
=
+ + = =
+ = =
R
R
R
R R R
R
R
R
R
q q
q q
Oq
Oq
q q
Example 2: Solution (Cont.)
x
z
y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
3
2
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
q
1
(3,2,1)
+

F
13
+
q
2
(1,1,4)
F
23
F
total
and
E = ??
q
3
(0,3,1)
Oq
3
Oq
2
q
3
q
2
=R
32
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
26
3 4
 
26
3 4 1  
is and between distance The
3 4
3 0 4
is to from vector distance The
3 0
4
are and charges the of ectors position v The
32
32
32
2 2 2
32
2 3
3 2 32
2 3
3 3
2 2
3 2
z y x
R
q q
z y x
z y x z y x
q q
z y x Oq
z y x Oq
q q
+
= =
=
+ + = =
+ =
+ + + = =
+ + = =
+ = =
R
R
R
R R R
R
R
R
Example 2: Solution (Cont.)
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) kV/m 9 . 749 76 . 370 31 . 650
V/m 10 100 499 . 7 7076 . 3 5031 . 6
10 10
10 499 . 7 7076 . 3 5031 . 6
m 499 . 7 7076 . 3 5031 . 6
0675 . 4 4234 . 5 3558 . 1 4315 . 3 7158 . 1 1473 . 5
m 0675 . 4 4234 . 5 3558 . 1
26
z 3 y 4 x
10 9135 . 6
26
z 3 y 4 x
26 10 854 . 8 4
10 10 10 2
m 4315 . 3 7158 . 1 1473 . 5
14
2 3
10 4198 . 6
14
2 3
14 10 854 . 8 4
10 10 10 1
3
9
3
3
3
2
12
9 3
3
2
12
9 3
F
E
N
F F F
N
F
N
F
23 13 total
23
13
z y x
z y x
z y x
q
z y x
z y x z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x z y x
+ =
+ =
+
= =
+ =
+ + + + =
+ =
+ =

.

\
 +
= 
.

\
 +
=
+ + =

.

\
 + +
= 
.

\
 + +
t
t
STEP 6: Solve the problem
Example 2: Solution (Cont.)
Alternatively, the resultant force F on charge Q3 can be determined
by using the formula as given below
** The signs of Q1, Q2 and Q3 must be taken into account.
Example 2: Solution (Cont.)
4
) (
4
) (
) (
4
3
2 3
3
1 3
2
1
3
2 3
2 3
1 3
1 3
total
R R
R R
R R
R R
R R
R R
F
=
=
=
tc tc
tc
Q Q Q Q
Q Q
k
k
k k
Charge can be continuously distributed along a line, on a
surface and in a volume:
Charge density:
Total charge due to line, surface & volume charge distributions:
Continuous Charge Distributions
+
Q
Point charge
Line charge
+ + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +
Surface charge
+ + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + +
Volume charge
(C)
}
=
l
l
dl Q (C)
}
=
s
s
ds Q (C)
}
=
v
v
dv Q
(C/m)
dl
dQ
l
= ) (C/m
2
ds
dQ
s
=
) (C/m
3
dv
dQ
v
=
along a line is on a surface is in a volume is
The electric field intensity due to point charge is
Total charge due to line, surface & volume charge distributions:
Thus,
Electric Field Intensity due to Continuous Charge
Distributions
(C)
}
=
l
l
dl Q (C)
}
=
s
s
ds Q (C)
}
=
v
v
dv Q
(V/m)
4
2
0
R
R
Q
tc
= E
Line charge
(V/m) E R
4
2
0
}
=
R
dl
l
tc
(V/m) E R
4
2
0
}
=
s
s
R
ds
tc
(V/m) E R
4
2
0
}
=
v
v
R
dv
tc
Surface charge
Volume charge
Example 3
. C/m 2 by given is density charge surface the if plate the
on charge total the Find . 3 3 and 3 3 by
defined space in the situated is plane in the plate square A
2 2
s
y
m y m  m x m 
xy
=
s s s s
x
z
y
3 2 1 1 2 3
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
3
( )
2 2
C/m 2 y
s
=
Example 3: Solution
. C/m 2 by given is density charge surface the if plate the
on charge total the Find . 3 3 and 3 3 by
defined space in the situated is plane y  x in the plate square A
2 2
s
y
m y m  m x m 
=
s s s s
C 216
) 18 )( 12 (
3
12
12 2
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
=
=



.

\

=
= =
= =
= =
= =
} }
} } }
y
dy y dy x y
dxdy y ds Q
y y
y x
s
s
x
z
y
3 2 1 1 2 3
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
3
) C/m ( 2
2 2
y
s
=
Example 4
constant. a is where , C/m if 0
and by defined disk circular a on charge total the Find
0 0
2
s s s
z
a r
= =
s
constant. a is where , C/m if 0
and by defined disk circular a on charge total the Find
0 0
2
s s s
z
a r
= =
s
 
( )
2
0
2
0
0
2
2
0 0
2
0 0
0
2
0 0
0
2
2
2
a
a
r
rdr d
rdrd Q
s
s
a
s
a
r
s
a
r
s
t
t



t
t

t

=


.

\

=
(
=
=
=
} }
} }
= =
= =
Example 4: Solution
Example 5
A spherical shell centered at the origin and extends to 2 cm. If the
volume charge density given by 2 Cm
3
, find the total charge
contained in the shell.
Example 5: Solution
A spherical shell centered at the origin and extends to 2 cm. If the
volume charge density given by 2 Cm
3
, find the total charge
contained in the shell.
( )
   
( )( )
C
x
r
dr r d d
d drd r
dv Q
x
x
R
x
R
v
v
t
u 
u u 
 u u
t t
t

t
u
t

t
u
67
3
10 8
2 2 2
3
cos 2
sin 2
sin 2
6
10 2
0
3
0
2
0
2
0 0
10 2
0
2
2
0 0
10 2
0
2
2
2
2
=


.

\

=
(
=
=
=
=
= = =
= = =
} } }
} } }
}
Consider a line charge with uniform charge density
l
extending
from a to b along zaxis. The electric field intensity E at point P
due to a finite line charge is
From figure, we have
The Efield due to a Line Charge
2 2
2 2
2
0
) ' ( ) (
) ' (
) ' ( ) (
) ' (
) ' (
) ' , 0 , 0 ( ) , , (
' '
4
z z r
z z z r r
R
z z r R
z z z r r
z z z y y x x
z z y x R
dz dl z l
R
R
dl
E
b
a
l
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
+ + =
= =
= =
= =
}
R
E
tc
( ) ( )
(
(
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
'
+
'
'
+
=
} }
z
z z r
z d
z z r
) z (z
r
z z r
z d
z z r
r
E
b
a
b
a
l
) (
) (
) (
) (
4
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
tc
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 1
2 2 2 2
) ( sec
) (
sec
cos
1
and ,
'
tan ,
) (
c ,
) (
'
sin
z z r r
r
z z r
b a
r
z z
z z r
r
os
z z r
z z
'
+ =
'
+
= =
= =
=
'
+
=
'
+
=
o
o
o
o o o o o
o o
o o
d r dz
r z z
r
z z
2
sec '
tan '
'
tan
=
=
=
Hence, the equation of electric field becomes
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
     
( ) ( )   z r
r
z r
r
z d r d os
r
z
r
d r
r
r
d r
os
z
z z r
z d
z z r
) z (z
r
z z r
z d
z z r
r
E
l
l
l
l
b
a
b
a
l
cos cos sin sin
4
cos sin
4
sin c
4
sec
sec
sin
sec
sec
c
4
) (
) (
) (
) (
4
1 2 2 1
0
0
0
2 2
2
2 2
2
0
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
o o o o
tc
o o
tc
o o o o
tc
o
o o
o
o
o o
o
tc
tc
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
+ =
+ =
(
+ =
(
=
(
(
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
'
+
'
'
+
=
} }
} }
} }
2
t
0
Angle is
positive
2
o
1
o
a
b
1 2
and o o = = a b
z
2
o
1
o
a
b
1 2
and o o = = a b
z
1 2
and o o = = a b
2
o
1
o
a
b
z
Value a and b for various configurations of a line charge:
V/m ]
) cos (cos
) sin sin [(
4
1 2 1 2
0
E z r o o o o
tc
+ + =
r
l
The Efield due to a Line Charge (Cont.)
Angle is
negative
2
t
2
t
0
Angle is
positive
Assumptions:
E for an infinite line charge,
(


.

\


.

\


.

\

+


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

= z r
2
cos
2
cos
2
sin
2
sin
4
0
t t t t
tc
r
l
E
2
o
1
o
a
b
2
and
2
and
1 2
t
o
t
o = =
= = a b
z
V/m
2
0
E r
r
l
tc
=
The Efield due to a Line Charge (Cont.)
Example 6
Two infinite uniform line charges of 5nC/m lie along the positive
and negative x and y axes in free space. Determine E at P
A
(0, 0, 4)
and P
B
(0, 3, 4).
x
z
y
lx
= 5nC/m
P
A
(0, 0, 4)
E = ??
ly
= 5nC/m
x
z
y
lx
= 5nC/m
P
B
(0, 3, 4)
E
ly
ly
= 5nC/m
E
lx
The total electric field intensity exert on point P
A
is: E = E
lx
+ E
ly
The formula of Efield for infinite line charge is modified as
V/m
2
0
E r
r
l
tc
= V/m
2
0
E z
z
lx
lx
tc
=
V/m
47 22
) 4 ( 2
5
2
0 0
E z z z .
n
z
lx
lx
= = =
tc tc
V/m
2
0
E r
r
l
tc
= V/m
2
0
E z
z
ly
ly
tc
=
V/m
9 . 44
47 22
47 22
) 4 ( 2
5
2
A
0 0
z
z z
z z z
=
+ = + =
= = =
. .
.
n
z
ly lx
ly
ly
E E E
E
tc tc
2
0
E r
r
l
tc
=
V/m
4 3
3
4 3 2
2 2 2 2
0
z y
E
+
+
+
=
tc
lx
lx
( )
V/m
38 . 14
79 . 10
4 3
4
3
2
5
4 3
3
4 3 2
2 2
0
2 2 2 2
0
z y
z y
z y
E + =
+
+
=
+
+
+
=
tc
tc
n
lx
lx
V/m
2
0
E r
r
l
tc
= V/m
2
0
E z
z
ly
ly
tc
=
( )
V/m
85 . 36
79 . 10
47 22
38 . 14
79 . 10
is 4) 3, (0, P at intensity field electric Total
V/m
47 22
) 4 ( 2
5
2
B
0 0
z
z z
z z z
+ =
+ + =
+ =
= = =
y
y
E E E
E
.
.
n
z
ly lx
ly
ly
tc tc
lx
= 9nC/m
ly
= 8nC/m
8m
7m
2m 10m
Example 7: Solution
(2, 3, 4)
r
E
lx
z
x
y
(7,0,0)
(2,0,0)
(8,0,0)
2
o
1
o
E for a finite line charge,
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
V/m z 71 . 20 y 53 . 15
21 . 4 ]
26 . 0
5
z 4 y 3
) 6 . 1 [(
5 4
9
]
) 43 . 63 cos 45 (cos
5
z 4 y 3
) 43 . 63 sin 45 sin [(
5 4
9
] ) cos (cos
) sin sin [(
4
0
0 0 0 0
0
1 2 1 2
0
+ = +
+
=
+
+
+ =
+ + =
x x
x
z r
tc
tc
o o o o
tc
n
n
r
lx
lx
E
( ) ( )
0 1
2
0 1
1
2 2
45
5
5
tan
, 64 . 63
5
10
tan
5
z 4 y 3
, 5 4 3 , z 4 y 3
figure; the From
=

.

\

=
=

.

\

=
+
=
= + = + =
o
o
r
r r
E for a finite line charge,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
V/m z 88 . 2 y 47 5
44 . 1 ]
34 0
20
z 4 x 2
) 2 . 0 [(
20 4
8
]
) 48 cos 71 (cos
20
z 4 x 2
) 71 sin 48 [(sin
20 4
8
] ) cos (cos
) sin [(sin
4
E
0
0 0 0 0
0
1 2 2 1
0
+ = 
.

\
 +
=
+ 
.

\
 +
=
+ =
. .
n
n
r
ly
ly
x y
y
z r
tc
tc
o o o o
tc
(2, 3, 4)
r
E
ly
z
x
(0,2,0) (0,10,0)
2
o
1
o
y
( ) ( )
0 1
2
0 1
1
2 2
71
20
13
tan , 48
20
5
tan
20
z 4 x 2
, 20 4 2 , z 4 x 2
figure; the From
= 
.

\

= = 
.

\

=
+
= = + = + =
o o
r r r
Example 7: Solution (Cont.)
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) N z y
z y
E F
z y
z y z y
E E E
n .
n
q
.
ly lx
15 . 89
3 . 50
85 13
83 . 17
06 . 10
77 . 2 5
is 5nC charge point on exert Force
V/m
83 . 17
06 . 10
77 . 2
88 . 2
47 5
44 . 1
71 . 20
53 . 15
21 . 4
is charges line both to due intensity field electric Total
+ =
+ =
=
+ =
+ + + =
+ =
x
x
x
x x
Example 7: Solution (Cont.)
The Efield due to a Ring Charge
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
'
4
4
' 4
'
'
4
4
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
0
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
2
0
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
0
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
2
0
E d E d E d
d
z r
rz
d
z r
r
z r
z r
z r
rd
R
dl
E d
d
z r
rz
d
z r
r
z r
z r
z r
rd
R
dl
E d
total
l l
l
l
l l
l
l
+ =
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
=
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
=
=
z r
z r
' R
z r
z r
R

tc

tc
tc

tc

tc

tc
tc

tc
l
a
dl=rd
dE
P (0,0,z)
R R
dl=rd
dE
R
r
r
z
z
2 2
2 2
z r
z r
z r R
z r
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
z r
R
z r R
The Efield due to a Ring Charge (Cont.)
( )
( )
( )
 
( )
z
z
z
z
4
2
2 3
2 2
0
0
2 3
2 2
0
0
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
0
z r
rz
z r
rz
d
z r
rz
E
d
z r
rz
E d
l
l
l
total
l
total
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
}
=
c

tc

tc

tc
t
t

Therefore, the total differential electric field dE
total
at point P
becomes
By integrating the equation of total differential electric field over
semicircle, the electric field at point P is
The Efield due to a Surface Charge
' 4
'
4
'
2
0
2
0
' R R
R
ds
R
ds
E d E d E d
s s
total
tc
tc
+ = + =
Derivation of the electric field
intensity E at point P due to a
finite surface charge.
From figure, we have
r
z
x
y
s
a
ds=rddr
dE
P (0,0,h)
R R
ds=rddr
dE
2 2
2 2
z r
z r
z r R
z r
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
z r
R
z r R
2 2
2 2
'
'
z r
z r
z r R
z r
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
z r
' R
z r R
The total differential electric field dE at point P is
The Efield due to a Surface Charge (Cont.)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
z
z r
z r
' R
z r
z r
R
2
'
4
4
' 4
'
'
4
4
4
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
2
0
2 2
2
2 2
0
2
0
2 3
2 2
0
2 3
2 2
2
0
2 2
2
2 2
0
2
0
z r
rzdrd
E d E d E d
z r
rzdrd
z r
drd r
z r
z r
z r
rdrd
R
ds
E d
z r
rzdrd
z r
drd r
z r
z r
z r
rdrd
R
ds
E d
s
total
s s
s s
s s
s s
+
= + =
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
= =
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
= =
tc


tc

tc

tc
tc

tc

tc

tc
tc
2
E
is charge sheet for field electric the of expression general, In
2
1
2
E
becomes intensity field electric the , to go on limit the charge, sheet For
1
2
E
1 1
1
2
2
2
E
0
0 0
2 2
0
2 2
0
0
2 2
0
0
0 0
2 3
2 2
0
0 0
2 3
2 2
0
c
t
tc

tc

tc
tc

t
t

t

s
s s
s
s
a
s
a
r
s
a
r
s
z
a
z a
z
z
z a
z
z r
z
z r
rdr
d
z
z r
rzdrd
=
=
(
=
(
+
=
(
+
+
=
(
=
+
=
+
=
} } } }
= = = =
s
= E
x
y
z
( ) z 
2
0
c
= E
x
y
z
P (0,0,h)
( ) z z  z
2
2
by given is charges opposite and equal having
plates two e between th existing field electric the plates, parallel In
0 0 0
c
s s s
=
+ = E
The Efield due to a Surface Charge (Cont.)
Example 8
An infinite extent sheet of charge exists at the plane
y = 2. Find the electric field intensity at point P (0, 2, 1).
2
C/m 10n
S
=
Example 8: Solution
Step 3: Solve the problem.
( )
V/m
565
10 854 . 8 2
10 10
2
12
9
0
E
y
y y
=
= =
S
Step 1: Sketch a diagram
E
x
y
z
P (0,2,1)
y n
. y
2
Thus,
S S
= = E
Step 2: Find the direction of unit
vector normal to the sheet.
n
2
charge, line infinite an for field electric The
2
charge, of sheet infinite an for field electric The
0
0
R
l
S
tc
=
=
E
E
Example 9: Solution