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# Mr.

Orestes Mendoza

INTRODUCTION
1. Nature of Algebra. In Algebra we study certain laws and processes which
relate to the number symbols. The processes are so definite, direct, and general as to render a knowledge of algebra essential to the students further progress in the study of mathematics.

## 2. Nature of Elementary Geometry. In elementary

geometry we study the position, form and magnitude of certain figures. The general methods consists of proving a theorem or solving a problem by the aid of certain geometric propositions previously considered. We shall see that analytic geometry, by employing algebra, develops a much simpler and more powerful method. angle, such as the sine and cosine, and apply the rules to mensuration.

## 4. Nature of Analytic Geometry. The chief features of analytic geometry which

distinguish it from elementary geometry are its method and results. The results will be found as we proceed, but the method of procedure may be indicated briefly at once. This method consists of indicating by algebraic symbols the position of the point, either fixed or in motion, and then applying to these symbols the processes of algebra. Without as yet knowing how this is done, we can at once see that with the aid of all the algebraic processes with which we are familiar we shall have very powerful method for exploring new domain in geometry, and for making new applications of mathematics to the study of natural phenomena.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Is that branch of mathematics in which problems are solved using the principles of Geometry and the processes of Algebra.

Two Parts;
Plane Analytical Geometry which deals with figures in a plane surface. Solid Analytical Geometry which deals with figures in a Three-dimensional space.

RENE DESCARTES
is regarded as the founder of Analytic geometry by introducing coordinates system in 1637.

## The Cartesian Coordinate System

also known as Rectangular Coordinate System. It is made up of two mutually perpendicular lines with the same unit of length and intersecting at their origin. The horizontal line is called the X-axis and the vertical line is called the Y-axis.. The plane on which these axis are constructed is called the Coordinate Plane or XY-plane. The directed distance of any point P on the coordinate plane from the Y-axis is called ABSCISSA of the point P and is indicated by X. The directed distance of P from the X-axis is called the ORDINATE of the point P and is indicated by Y. The symbol P(x,y) is therefore used to indicate the point P on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane with Abscissa X and Ordinate Y.

Exercise 1 :
Plot the following points:

1. ( -4 , -3 ) 2. ( , ) 3. ( 3.5 , -2.5 ) 4. ( -2 , 3 ) 5. ( 35 , 0 ) 6. ( 0 , -6 )

## 7. Triangle with vertices (0,3) , (-1,-2) , (4,1)

8. Triangle with vertices (3,4) , (-2,2) , (5,-2) 9. Quadrilateral with vertices (-1,2) , (-1,-1) , (3,-4) , 5,4) 10. Quadrilateral with vertices (2,3) , (-2,-3) , (3,-5) , (4,1)

## What is Distance between Two Points in a Plane?

consider two points whose coordinates are ( X1 , Y1 ) and ( X2 , Y2 ) , respectively. A right triangle is formed with the distance between two points being the hypotenuse of the right triangle.

Using the Pythagorean Theorem, the distance between two points can be calculated using :
d = (X2-X1)2 + (Y2-Y1)2

## What is Distance between Two Points in Space?

Consider three axes namely x , y and z and two points with coordinate (X1,Y1,Z1) and (X2,Y2,Z2) , respectively. d = (X2-X1)2 + (Y2-Y1)2 + (Z2-Z1)2

(Y1.Y2)

Y2-Y1

(X1,X2)

X2-X1

EXERCISE 2 :
Find the distance between the given points:

1. (1,5) (9,11)
2. (-9,-6) (3,9) 3. (-5,3) (0,8)

4. (2,13) (4,5)
5. (-1,7) (-1,14) 6. (4,-6) (17,-6)

EXERCISE 3 :
Find the Perimeter of the Triangle whose vertices are:

1. A (3,0) , B (5,2) , C (7,6) 2. A (6,2) , B (-1,1) , C (3,-2) 3. A (2,-3) , B (-6,-3) , C (5,4) 4. A (3,0) , B (6,4) , C (-1,3) 5. Show that the Triangle whose vertices are A(7,2) , B(11,10) , C(-5,8) is a right triangle.