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Outline
Definition Methods

## Discussion and Conclusion

Given specific quantities, determine the behavior of bus voltage and power flows Important way to analysis any power system

## Characteristics of distribution system

Radial or weakly meshed structure Multiphase and unbalanced operation Unbalanced distribution load Extremely large number of branches and nodes Wide-ranging resistance and reactance values

Gauss-Seidel method

Slow iterative problem-solving technique Use a full matrix Require a large number of processors

Gauss-Seidel method

Gauss-Seidel method

Gauss-Seidel method

Comparably slow convergance rate matrix is sparse and cant be inverted Usually solve for linear power system

Newton-Raphson method

Solve nonsquare and nonlinear problems Relatively high iteration Require a good initial guess of the solution

Newton-Raphson method

Active power cost optimization Active power loss minimization Minimum control-shift Minimum number of controls rescheduled

Newton-Raphson method

First order
2

Second order

Newton-Raphson method

## Y=Yij; i=n(p-1)+k; J=n(q-1)+1;

2 2

S is three phase bus complex power vector E is diagonal three phase bus voltage matrix Y is complex conjugation of three phase bus admittance matrix

Newton-Raphson method

Very complicated Lead to partial derivations of nonlinear complex It is involved Jacobian -J complex form It has relatively slow convergence time

DistFlow method

Dont require the admittance matrix calculation Use a set of recursive equations Estimating the power loss reduction due to a branch exchange.

DistFlow method

Basic equation

DistFlow method

Pi represents the real power Qi represents reactive power Vi represents voltage magnitudes

DistFlow method

Had a greater speed of convergence and fewer iterations to obtain an optimal solution Minimize the feeder losses Make it possible for the power industry to supply energy in the most cost effective manner Still need to reconfiguration of the network

Direct approach

## Bus injection to branch-current matrix (BIBC) Branch-current to bus-voltage matrix (BCBV)

Direct approach

Accuracy: They both have almost same accuracy as Gauss-Seidel Performance:1. BCBV has more efficiency, especially when the network size increases.

Direct approach

2.The normalized time increases since the network increase the nonzero terms of the BIBC and BCBV metrics

Decoupling compensation

Sequence Decoupling compensation NewtonRaphson (SDCNR) Sequence Decoupling Compensation Fast Decoupling (SDCFD) 5

Decoupling compensation

Use to analysis both normal and abnormal three phase power system steady state operation Computation accuracy and speed improved Convergence reliable Simplify computation procedure Positive-sequence impedance of generator

Conclusion

## Introduce Some load flow LF-methods Some other methods:

Bus-impedance Fast decoupling

## Unique features of each LF-method How to use these methods

Questions?

Reference

1:A parallel Gauss-Seidel algorithm for sparse power system matrices Koester, D.P.; Ranka, S.; Fox, G.C.; Supercomputing '94. Proceedings 14-18 Nov. 1994 Page(s):184 - 193 2: Newton-Raphson method in complex form [power flow analysis] Hieu Le Nguyen; Transmission and Distribution Conference, 1996. Proceedings., 1996 IEEE 15-20 Sept. 1996 Page(s):591 - 595 3:A comparison of load flow analysis using DistFlow, Gauss-Seidel, and optimal load flow algorithms Gilbert, G.M.; Bouchard, D.E.; Chikhani, A.Y.; Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1998. IEEE Canadian Conference on Volume 2, 24-28 May 1998 Page(s):850 - 853 vol.2 4:A direct approach for distribution system load flow solutions Jen-Hao Teng; Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on Volume 18, Issue 3, July 2003 Page(s):882 - 887 5:Fast three phase load flow methods Xiao-Ping Zhang; Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Volume 11, Issue 3, Aug. 1996 Page(s):1547 - 1554